BC Religio ig ns n of S outh h A sia

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1 Religions of South Asia BC Hinduism gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism Christianity Jesus Christ, son of God the Bible Islam Muhammadlast prophet to talk to Allah t he Quran Do you think Islam had an effect on Hindu India?

2 2. Hinduism? The religion of Hinduism developed and evolved over a long time in India, giving rise to a variety of beliefs and practices and to other religions, including Jainism

3 What is Hinduism? One of the oldest religions of humanity The religion of the Indian people Its origins are difficult to trace Brahman

4 How did Hinduism begin? No particular founder Indus River Valley Civilization >5000 years ago Aryans enter years ago Vedic Tradition years ago:

5 What do Hindus believe? One impersonal Ultimate Reality Brahman -the creator Atman, the soul, is Brahman trapped in matter Reincarnation reborn into this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara) Karma spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad)

6 How does Hinduism direct life in this world? Dharma-set of spiritual duties-based on class and station Four stations of life (Caste) - priests & teachers, nobles & warriors, merchant class, servant class Four stages of life student, householder, retired, renunciant

7 What are the Sacred Texts? Shruti ( heard ) oldest, most authoritative: Four Vedas ( truth ) myths, rituals, chants Upanishads - metaphysical speculation Smriti ( remembered ) the Great Indian Epics: Ramayana Mahabharata (includes Bhagavad- Gita)

8 What are the spiritual practices of Hinduism? Yoga-meditation in order to attain moksha Ultimate goal of life to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman (Moksha)

9 Who do Hindus worship? BC the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Brahma, the creator god

10 Who do Hindus worship? BC the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Vishnu, the preserver god Incarnates as ten avatars (descents) including: Rama (featured in the Ramayana) Krishna (featured in the Mahabharata) (Each shown with his consort, Sita and Radha, respectively)

11 Who do Hindus worship? BC the major gods of the Hindu Pantheon Shiva, god of constructive destruction (the transformer) Appears as Shiva Nataraj, lord of the dance of creation and with his wife, Parvati, and son Ganesha (the elephant headed remover of obstacles)

12 What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine divine BC Saraswati, goddess of wisdom, consort of Brahma

13 What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine divine Lakshmi, goddess of good fortune, consort of Vishnu

14 What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine divine Parvati, divine mother, wife of Shiva

15 What about the goddesses? Devi the feminine divine Durga, protectress Plus about 330 million other deities Kali, destroyer of demons

16 All these deities are but Manifest forms (attributes and functions) of the impersonal Brahman

17 Jainism BC 500 BC a group of Hindus broke away Mahavira Jainism thought Hindus placed too much emphasis on ritual Plus about 330 million other deities Ahimsa- nonviolence towards living things; avoid stealing and tell the truth

18 3. Buddhism Buddhism, which teaches people that they can escape the suffering of the world through the Buddhist teachings, developed in India and spread to other parts of Asia

19 Siddhartha Gautama ( BCE) Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism can be traced to one single founder, Siddhartha Gautama Prince of a small kingdom; he lived sheltered life and sought the answer to ending suffering After years of meditation searching for Nirvava he became Enlightened He transformed into Buddha

20 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? BC Desire! Therefore, extinguish the self, don t obsess about oneself. Give up all materials and possessions of the world.

21 Four Noble Truths There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. (Dukkha) The cause of suffering is self-centered desire and attachments. (Tanha) The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments. (Nirvana = extinction ) To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path.

22 Eightfold Path BC Right Understanding Right Intention Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Concentration Right Mindfulness

23 Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth. Reincarnation

24 Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism Zen Buddhism

25 Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. The Way of the Elders or the Small Vehicle. Found in southern Asia. The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal is to become a Buddha, or Enlightened One. Over 100,000,000 followers today.

26 Mahayana Buddhism The Great Vehicle. Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism for the masses. Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.

27 Tibetan Buddhism The Diamond Vehicle. [Vajrayana] Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. A mix of Theravada and Mahayana. Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Book of the Dead [Bardo Thodol].

28 The Dalai Lama BC

29 Zen Buddhism The Meditation School. Seeks sudden enlightenment [satori] through meditation, arriving at emptiness [sunyata]. Use of meditation masters [Roshi]. Beauty, art, and aesthetics: Gardens. Archery. Tea ceremony. Calligraphy.

30 Buddhism in America (1999) BC

31 Relieve Stress & Meditate: Get a Mantra! BC Ohm...mani...padme...hung... Hail to the jewel in the lotus!

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