UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture.

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1 UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture.

2 UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture.

3 BELLRINGER 1. What civilization was located in west Africa and migrated south and east, spreading their language and culture as they traveled? 2. What civilization sold purple dye, were master shipbuilders, and developed the alphabet? 3. Why were the Hebrews considered monotheistic? 4. What civilization invented the wheel and built ziggurats? 5. What civilization likely worshiped the spirit of the jaguar and was located in Mesoamerica?

4 RELIGION the belief in a god or in a group of gods an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, and rules used to worship a god or a group of gods an interest, a belief, or an activity that is very important to a person or group Monotheism- belief in a single god Polytheism- belief in many gods

5 ACTIVATOR What purpose has religion served throughout history? Think of examples and explain your answer.

6 HINDUISM (POLYTHEISTIC) Hinduism is the religion of the majority of people in India and Nepal. It also exists among significant populations outside of the subcontinent and has over 900 million adherents worldwide. Unlike most other religions, Hinduism has no single founder, no single scripture, and no commonly agreed set of teachings. Hinduism originated near the Indus River in modern day Pakistan. Main Text- Vedas Brahman- Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva

7 BRAHMAN Brahman- supreme God force present within all things. Brahma- creation of the world and all creatures Vishnu- preserver and protector of the universe Shiva- role is to destroy the universe in order to re-create it

8 BELIEFS AND IDEAS Vedas- main text in Hinduism, composed of four parts Upanishads- one part of the Vedas, Hindu teachings written down. Written as a conversation between student and teacher. Moksha- perfect understanding of all things, the ultimate goal in Hinduism Reincarnation- the idea that a soul is reborn again and again until moksha is achieved Karma- good or bad deeds, influences life circumstances

9 CASTE SYSTEM Aryans were organized into four groups based on occupation: 1. Brahmins (priests) 2. Warriors 3. Traders and landowners 4. Peasants 5. Untouchables (not part of the four) -Hindu ideas strengthened the caste system. -Together, the beliefs of Hinduism and the caste system dominate every aspect of a person s life

10 HINDUISM TODAY Hinduism has gone through many changes over the last 2,500 years Hindus today can choose which god they worship or none at all They are also free to choose among three paths to achieve moksha Path of religious devotion Path of right thinking Path of right action

11 TWO

12 REVIEW 1. In what two countries is Hinduism the most practiced religion? 2. What member does the Brahman consist of and what is the role of each? 3. What is the ultimate goal in Hinduism? 4. Describe reincarnation. 5. What class is at the top of the caste system? 6. Is there only one patch to achieving Moksha?

13 UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture.

14 BELLRINGER 1. True or False: Hinduism is monotheistic. 2. What figure of the Brahman is responsible for destroying the world in order to re-create it? 3. What is the name of the main text in Hinduism? 4. Describe one way Hindu s can achieve Mosksha. 5. What goes around comes around is a saying people use to describe.

15 ACTIVATOR What philosophy do you have in life? What approach do you think is the best in living life? What kind of life would you suggest for others to strive for?

16 BUDDHISM (NON-THEISTIC) Siddhartha Gautama- founder of Buddhism Around 500 BCE Siddhartha was a noble in modern-day Nepal whose father kept him isolated in the palace He then married and had a son, but was curious about the outside world He ventured outside the palace and four times and saw: An old man A sick man A dead person Religious man at peace with himself

17 BUDDHA S TEACHINGS Siddhartha decided to spend his life searching for religious truth and an end to life s suffering Siddhartha spent six years wandering the forests of India looking for enlightenment He debated people, fasted, but did not find enlightenment and continued to suffer He then sat in meditation under a fig tree for 49 days, eventually achieving understanding and enlightenment He then became known as The Buddha or Enlightened One

18 FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS First Noble Truth- Life is filled with suffering and sorrow Second Noble Truth- The cause of all suffering is people s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world Third Noble Truth- The way to end all suffering is to end all desires Fourth Noble Truth- The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle Way between desires and self-desire

19 Right Views Right Resolve Right Speech Right Conduct Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration EIGHTFOLD PATH

20 NIRVANA Nirvana- the release from pain and suffering after achieving enlightenment By following the Eightfold Path, any person can reach Nirvana The Buddha was influenced by ideas of Hinduism and accepted the idea of Reincarnation He rejected the caste system though and the privleges of the Brahmin priests The goals of Hinduism and Buddhism are similar

21 BUDDHISM IN INDIA AND THE WORLD After Buddha s death, missionaries spread his teachings all over large parts of Asia Buddhism didn t gain as much of a foothold in India as it did in other parts of Asia Trade was an important factor in the early spread of Buddhism The Silk Roads were instrumental in the spread of ideas, and specifically Buddhism

22 SILK ROADS: HOW DOES INDIA S GEOGRAPHY BENEFIT THEM IN TRADE?

23 REVIEW What man founded Buddhism, and where? What did the Buddha see when he ventured outside of the palace? What does the Buddha mean? What is nirvana? Describe the Fourth Noble Truth.

24 BELLRINGER 1. What is reincarnation? 2. The ultimate goal in Hinduism is to achieve. 3. Describe the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path in Buddhism. 4. Before being known as the Buddha, his name was. 5. How can one achieve Nirvana in Buddhism? 6. Where in Asia did Buddhism become very popular?

25 DISCUSSION How much of a government should be influenced by religion? Is the separation of religion and government a good thing, or bad. Explain and defend your answer.

26 BELLRINGER 1. What is the ultimate goal in Hinduism and the ultimate goal in Buddhism? 2. Where is Hinduism most commonly practiced in the world, and where is Buddhism most commonly practiced? 3. In Hinduism, which figure of the Brahman destroys the world in order for it to be recreated? 4. What is the core teaching in Buddhism? 5. According to the Buddha, what causes pain and suffering in life?

27 UNIT TWO In this unit we will analyze Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Indian, and Chinese culture.

28 MAURYAN EMPIRE Around 320 BCE, a powerful leader named Chandra Maurya seized power in India In 321 BCE, he seized power by killing the king and claiming his throne, beginning the Mauryan Empire Maurya defeated a Macedonian general to gain control of a stretch of land 2,000 miles, uniting India for the first time Another leader soon took his place, who would take the Mauryan empire to new heights- Asoka

29 ASOKA-MAURYAN KING Asoka led in a similar way as Chandra had before him, mostly by waging war In one battle with a neighboring kingdom he lost over 100,000 soldiers and felt guilty After this he studied Buddhism and decided to rule using Buddhist ideas (ex. peace to all beings ) Asoka proved to be a great leader and greatly improved conditions for his people

30 ASOKA S ACTIONS Spread Buddhism and sent out Buddhist missionairies Erected stone pillars with his policies Urged religious tolerance Built extensive roads that stretched across the empire He employed officials to look out for his subjects welfare

31 GUPTA EMPIRE As impressive as Asoka s policies were, they could not keep the empire together After Asoka s death, there was a power vacuum in India After 500 years of instability, a strong leader rose up in northern India- Chandra Gupta He came to power by marrying a daughter of an influential royal family This gave birth to the Gupta Empire, which enhanced Indian civilization and Hindu Culture

32 GUPTA EMPIRE Emerged in Northern India. (320 CE- 550 CE) Enjoyed a period of great cultural achievement known as a Golden Age. Both Hinduism and Buddhism were practiced. Established a strong centralized government. Enjoyed major advancements in Learning, medicine, architecture, literature, arts, and math.

33 REVIEW 1. Who did Chandra Maurya defeat to unite India for the first time? 2. What religion was Asoka most inspired by? 3. Religiously, what did Asoka urge? 4. How did Chandra Gupta come into power? 5. Describe the location of the Gupta Empire.

34 BELLRINGER 1. Reincarnation: Hindu idea or Buddhist idea? 2. What did Chandra Maurya do to unite India for first time? 3. The Mauryan Empire included what present-day nations? 4. What religion did Asoka embrace during his rule? 5. Why did Asoka urge religious toleration? 6. Describe the location of the Gupta Empire.

35 CONFUCIANISM (NON-THEISTIC) The Zhou Dynasty lasted from around 1027 to 256 BCE Towards the end, the leaders of independent territories began to think of themselves as kings They were almost constantly at war with each other, which led to the end of the Zhou Dynasty Towards the end of the Zhou, many Chinese moved away from the ancient values of social order, harmony, and respect for authority Chinese scholars and philosophers developed different solutions to restore those values

36 CONFUCIUS BACKGROUND A scholar named Confucius was born when the Zhou Dynasty was in decline He lived a scholarly life, teaching and studying history, music, and moral character Confucius had a deep desire to restore order and moral living to his society

37 CONFUCIUS SOCIAL ORDER Confucius believed that order could best be restored if society was organized around 5 relationships Ruler and subject Father and son Husband and wife Older brother and younger brother Friend and friend Confucius also stressed that children should have respect for their elders and ancestors

38 CONFUCIAN IDEAS ABOUT GOVERNMENT Confucius wanted to reform society by showing rulers how to govern wisely Confucius believed that education could transform a humbly-born person into a gentleman Civil-Service Exam was created for government Confucianism became the foundation for Chinese government and social order

39 DAOISM In the 6 th century BCE, a Chinese thinker named Laozi introduced new ideas He believed that only the natural order was important The natural order involved relations among all living things The Dao - means the way and is a universal force that guides all things Laozi believed that of all the creatures of nature, only humans fail to follow the Dao

40 BELLRINGER 1. What circumstances led to the end of the Zhou dynasty in China? 2. What did Confucius do for a living? 3. How did Confucius believe society could best be restored? 4. What man is the founder of Daoism? 5. What did the founder of Daoism believe about humans in regards to the universal force that guides all things?

41 BELLRINGER 1. How many years did the Zhou dynasty rule in China? 2. What was the social condition of China towards the end of the Zhou dynasty? 3. What did Confucius have a deep desire to do in China? 4. What does the Dao mean? 5. According to Laozi, which creatures are the only to fail in following the Dao?

42 QIN DYNASTY In the Third century BCE, the Qin dynasty replaced the Zhou dynasty One focus of Qin leaders was to halt internal battles and unify the country A leader named Shi Huangdi focused on defeating invaders and crushing resistance against his rule He introduced a policy called strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches Shi made all of the noble families live under his watch in the capital city

43 QIN DYNASTY Shi Huangdi also created standards in China for writing, law, currency, weights, and measures Irrigration projects increased farm production Shi was still and unpopular leader because: High taxes and repressive government Burned books by Confucian thinkers and poets Poor people forced to work on huge defensive wall to deter attacks from Northern nomads The Qin dynasty gave way to the Han dynasty, one of the longest in Chinese history

44 GREAT WALL OF CHINA Approximately 5,500 miles long Goes from the Yellow Sea in the east to the Gobi Desert in the west Watch towers were built every 200 to 300 yards along the wall Rulers of the Zhou dynasty erected several walls but Shi determined to close the gaps and extend the wall the length of the empires border Although Shi built the earliest unified wall, the wall as it exists today dates from the Ming Dynasty

45 GREAT WALL OF CHINA (GO TO PAGE 108)

46 HAN DYNASTY After Shi died, his son proved to be an ineffective leader The Qin dynasty had been unpopular with the people anyways, which led to other kings trying to take power After a civil war, two leaders emerged: Xiang Yu and one of his generals, Liu Bang Liu Bang turned against Xiang and won He then declared himself emperor of the Han Dynasty The Han dynasty would last over 400 years

47 HIGHLY STRUCTURED SOCIETY Emperor King, Governor Govt officials, Scholars Peasants Artisans, Merchants Soldiers Slaves

48 WHICH ONE ARE YOU?

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