RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES ORGANIZER KEY POINTS REVIEW

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1 RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES ORGANIZER KEY POINTS REVIEW

2 HINDUISM Major religion practiced in India Oldest Religion in the world that we know of Started from the Aryan Vedic civilization around 1500 BCE Practices many aspects of Indian life including literature, arts, and economics Absorbed ideas from other religions Polytheistic religion-beliefs in many Gods Major Gods are Brahma the Creator, Shiva the destroyer, and Vishnu Preserver Main texts are the Vedas and the Upanishads Includes a caste system-class system of four main classes Highest caste is the Brahmins or priests.then the Kshatriyas(rulers and warriors) then the Vaisyas(farmers, craftspeople, and traders) then the Sudras(workers and servants)

3 HINDUISM CONTINUED Believe that individual and universe are part of each other Believe in Samsara-life s cycle of death and rebirth Music and dance are part of religious celebrations and a part of life Celebrate many holidays throughout the year No founder Believe in Karma(your deeds good or bad determine what you are reincarnated into and Reincarnation (Being born into a new body). Ultimate Goal to achieve Moksha be free from reincarnation and unite with Brahman Followers are called Hindus

4 BUDDHISM Started in India and spread through Asia-now it is found throughout the world Has a founder-siddhartha Gautama Siddhartha was a Hindu-also came from a wealthy family Therefore many aspects of Hinduism are found in Buddhism Led a sheltered life-never seen sickness or poverty When he left home, he saw lots of suffering Turned to mediation after seeing how people treated others

5 BUDDHISM CONTINUED Siddhartha referred to himself as Buddha-the awakened or enlightened one Buddha said people could be free of suffering if they gave up their desires for power and money aka materialism Taught the Four Noble Truths: 1. Life has suffering 2. We suffer because we want power and riches 3. To not suffer, we must not want power and riches 4. To give up wanting power and riches, we must follow the Eight Fold Path

6 BUDDHISM CONTINUED Aspects of the Eight Fold Path are: 1. Right Understanding 2. Right Thought 3. Right Speech 4. Right Action 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Concentration

7 BUDDHISM CONTINUED Believe in Karma and Reincarnation as well Strive to Reach Nirvana-freeing of self from material desires Often Meditate to clear their minds and to experience a glimpse of nirvana Practices differ among countries and groups Some Chant-Some Meditate Believe in respecting all and world peace.peaceful people Followers are called Buddhists

8 ISLAM Central Book/Holy Book is the Qur an Monotheistic Mohammad is the founder Worship in a mosque Jihad-inner struggle people go through to obey God 5 Pillars of Islam 1. No God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give to the poor and needy 4. Fast during the month of Ramadan 5. Travel to Mecca at least once on a hajj Followers are called Muslims

9 SHINTO Main religion/native religion of Japan No founder No Holy Book Believe in spirits called Kami that in everything including nature plants, animals, rocks, and mountains Believe spirits control all forces of nature Links people to powerful forces of nature Ancestor Worship Has famous Torii or gates that are a symbol of the religion symbolizes movement finite human world into the infinite world of the gods

10 CONFUCIANISM A philosophy not a religion Founder Confucius Focus on Self Improvement, Learning, Moral Behavior, and Obedience Order is maintained through respect for elders, superiors, and proper behavior Worships Ancestors Started in China and popular in China Government Tests are Based on this it is known as the Civil Service Exam

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