SSWH 2 Presentation. Ancient World

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1 SSWH 2 Presentation Ancient World

2 SSWH 2 Identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies to 500 CE/AD.

3 China and India CHINA Mesopotamia Egypt You are here INDIA

4 SSWH 2 Identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies to 500 CE/AD.

5

6 Where is India?

7 A. Describe the development of Indian civilization, include: the rise and fall of the Maurya and Gupta Empires.

8 Vocabulary Subcontinent - a large distinguishable part of a continent Indus River - located in Western India; the site of one of the earliest civilizations Himalayas - a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. Maurya Empire - name of the first empire in India - ruled from 321 to 185 B.C.E. Ashoka - ruled the Mauryan Empire from 273 to 232 BCE, during which time he converted from Hinduism to Buddhism and renounced war. Gupta Empire - Indian Empire ruled from 320 to 550 CE and is known for the artistic and intellectual advances that cultivated there because of its long-lasting peace.

9 Early India & Geography Early Indian civilizations developed in the Indus River valley Ancient Indian cities and towns were all located along the Indus River because of trade and transportation INDUS RIVER

10 H India is separated from the rest of Asia by two major mountain ranges Himalayas Hindu Kush K ind us u h Early India & Geography Him ala yas Indian subcontinent

11 Khyber Pass H K ind us u h Invaders can only enter the Indian subcontinent over water or through a small number of mountain passes Him ala y as Indian subcontinent The most well-known mountain pass is the Khyber Pass.

12 Early India & Geography Plains stretch south from the mountains There are two major rivers on these plains Indus Ganges Indus River Ganges River

13 Aryan Civilization Beginning in 1500 B.C.E., a group of peoples called Aryans invaded the Indus River valley

14 Aryan Civilization The Aryans originated from the area north of the Black and Caspian Seas The Aryans entered India through the Khyber Pass

15 Aryan Civilization Nomadic at first, settled down into agriculture in Indus Valley Each tribe led by a rajah (chief) Importance of cattle Served as basis of diet,

16 Caste System established To provide social control and conformity

17 Mauryan Empire The Mauryas: Indian dynasty in the fourth-third centuries BCE unified the subcontinent for the first time contributed to the spread of Buddhism Unified by Chandragupta Maurya

18 Chandragupta Maurya ( BCE) Founded the Mauryan Empire united Northern India under his rule efficient and highly organized autocracy with a standing army and civil service

19 Ashoka Maurya (272 BCE BCE) Grandson to Chandragupta Maurya last major emperor in the Mauryan dynasty Following his successful but bloody conquest renounced armed conquest

20 Ashoka Maurya (272 BCE BCE) After the adoption of Buddhism, Ashoka: Never again went to war publicity for his teachings/work: made them known by engravings on rocks and pillars at suitable sites

21 Ashoka Maurya Carved his laws on rocks (Edicts of Ashoka) These laws let everyone know of his conversion to Buddhism Established free hospitals and veterinary clinics Built roads with rest areas for travelers

22 Fall of the Mauryan Empire Ashoka dies. Due to a period of decentralization and waring kingdom creates roughly 500 years of years of turmoil Weak Successors Size of the Empire Foreign invasion Internal Revolt

23 Gupta Empire Beginnings Legacy of Strong Rulers Reunites India Chandragupta I (319 CE CE) gains political power and military might makes the empire powerful

24 Gupta Empire Beginnings Legacy of Strong Rulers Reunites India Samudragupta (335 CE CE) military genius continues growth of kingdom

25 Gupta Empire Beginnings Legacy of Strong Rulers Reunites India Chandragupta II (375 CE CE) Uses military conquest and diplomacy to rise to power Creates standing military

26 Gupta Empire Golden Age - peace, prosperity, focus on education and achievements arts, music, literature, and science grew Scientific achievement Medicine: made huge strides in the field of surgery Astronomy: Discovered the earth turns on its axis every day Less centralized than Mauryan Empire- Involved local people in the government

27 Gupta Empire Charitable institutions, schools, orphanages hospitals rest houses Healthy system of trade Religious tolerance

28 B. Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou, Qin, and Han.

29 Vocabulary Dynasty - is a ruling family whose members govern one after another over a long period of time. Zhou - was the second dynasty in China and was the longest lasting one in Chinese history: 1045 to 256 BCE. Mandate of Heaven - the belief that Chinese dynasties ruled or lost power based on how pleased or displeased the gods were with their abilities and actions. Qin - dynasty unified China in 221 BCE, standardized the language, and built the Great Wall before being overthrown in 206 BCE. Han - Chinese dynasty ruled from the 200s BCE to the 200s CE, implementing a civil service system during their rule. Great Wall - is a series of stone and earthen fortifications which were built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 6th Century BC and the 16th century AD, to protect the northern borders of an empire.

30 China and India CHINA Mesopotamia Egypt You are here INDIA

31

32 Where is China?

33 Ancient China Early societies in China developed along the Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow River) It is the 2nd longest river in China. It is the 4th longest river in the world. Known as China s Sorrow - because of its flooding People lived here for 27,000 years

34 Zhou China (1100 B.C. 250 B.C.) Nomadic tribe that defeated the Shang dynasty Established the idea of the Mandate of Heaven to validate their rule Mandate of Heaven: Authority granted by heaven to deserving rulers - supernatural spirits If you are fair and just you can continue to rule

35 Zhou China (1100 B.C. 250 B.C.) Use of the Feudal System of government Emperor gives land to lords These leaders pledge loyalty These leaders give out jobs and land

36 Fall of Zhou Empire Use of feudal techniques to manage a widespread empire regional leaders given considerable control subjects became loyal to the local power rather than to the Emperor Zhou Dynasty ended in wars and political upheaval.

37 Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) China was unified by Qin Shihuangdi following the Warring States period Utilized strong military power conquer their enemies Qin Shihuangdi destroyed the power of the nobles removed from their positions and sent to live in the capital

38 Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) 213 B.C. - Shihuangdi burned thousands of books Afraid of scholars and writings that could challenge his power Believed in Legalism as a political philosophy Control people through the use of more guards, strict rules, heavy penalties

39 Achievements of the Qin Standardized the Chinese language and a system of measurement Unified law code for China Credit for unifying China economically, politically, and culturally Created a legacy of centralized government unified under one ruler We get the modern day name for China from the Qin

40 Qin China (221 B.C.E 206 B.C.E) Connected walls built along the northern border of China to form the Great Wall to protect from invaders It stretched 4,000 miles

41 End of Qin China Qin Shihuangdi died in 210 B.C. Son was weak leader Hatred for Qin boiled over into rebellion in 206 B.C.

42 Han China (206 B.C.E 220 C.E.) End of rebellion: peasant named Liu Bang emerged as the new emperor of China and established the Han Dynasty maintained many of the policies of the Qin but relaxed the severity through use of Confucianism required leaders to earn the respect of the governed.

43 Han China (206 B.C.E 220 C.E) maintained control of an empire even larger than the Qin the Han directed a vast bureaucracy organized into nine ministries and regional authorities staffed by educated civil servants who received their appointments based on their score on a rigorous civil service examination

44 Achievements of Han China (206 B.C.E 220 C.E) effective tax collection system a postal service built extensive roads, canals, and defensive walls protected the empire from the threat of nomadic invaders security of the Han period led to a thriving economy that engaged in extensive internal and international trade

45 Collapse of Han China (206 B.C.E 220 C.E) Han Dynasty eventually collapses due to: bureaucratic corruption and infighting food shortages epidemic disease Banditry pressure from nomadic invaders along the northern border

46 C. Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on India, and Confucianism on China.

47 Vocabulary Hinduism - This religion originated in India and was closely tied to the Indian Caste System. Buddhism - followers of this philosophy study the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. Confucianism - a way of life, a social ethic, political ideology - it is a set of ethical values, morality, social norms, social order, etc 8 Fold Path - the principle teachings of the Buddha, saying, among other things, that people should practice Right Speech, Right Action, Right Effort, and other essentials to achieve enlightenment. Karma - the sum effect of your good or bad deeds

48 Hinduism National religion of India Based on variety of beliefs and practices Belief in dharma Duties you are expected to perform. The ethical way in which you are supposed to behave. Both of which are based off your station in life.

49 Hinduism Belief in reincarnation (or transmigration of the soul) The soul is reborn into another body after death Karma determines where you are born Therefore your actions determine your station in life

50 Hinduism One can be born into a higher caste or lower caste Eventually, one can escape the cycle and reach enlightenment Called moksha Prayer, rituals, self-denial and rejection of worldly possessions can help achieve this

51 Hinduism henotheistic: recognize existence of thousands of gods but believe in only one supreme god supreme god: Brahman everything in the world is considered an aspect of Brahman Three most important facets/aspects of Brahman: Brahma Creator Continues to create new creations Vishnu Preserver Preserves new creation, sometimes by traveling to earth if necessary Shiva Destroyer Can be compassionate or destructive

52 Hinduism Sacred Texts VEDAS Ramayana Upanishads Mahabrata

53 Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gautama Called Buddha Means Enlightened One Legend: Born into luxury, became shocked when he drove around in his chariot and saw poverty and sickness Left wife and newborn son to wander around India at age 29 Lived as hermit for 7 years until finally finding enlightenment

54 Buddhism Based on variety of beliefs and practices Karma determines where you are born Therefore your actions determine your station in life Belief in dharma Duties you are expected to perform. The ethical way in which you are supposed to behave. But in this case, it is all based off the teachings of Buddha telling you how to act/live

55 Buddhism Belief in reincarnation (or transmigration of the soul) The soul is reborn into another body after death Differs: Rejection of caste system

56 Buddhism To get rid of suffering, taught: Four Noble Truths: 1. All people suffer 2. People suffer because of their material desires 3. Suffering could end by eliminating desires 4. Following the Eightfold Path one could eliminate desires

57 Buddhism Eightfold Path 1) Know truth 2) Resist evil 3) Say nothing to hurt others 4) Respect life 5) Work for the good of others 6) Free your mind from evil 7) Control your thoughts 8) Practice meditation

58 Buddhism Purpose: To reach nirvana To attain enlightenment (attainment allows escape) More philosophy than religion, but can be considered both or either The Middle Way is important Away from extremes Moderation

59 Diffusion of Buddhism Ashoka was the first ruler to send out Buddhist missions to convert other nations, helping the religion spread

60 Diffusion of Buddhism The Silk Road played the largest part in the diffusion of Buddhism.

61 Confucianism Founded by Kongfuzi ( B.C.) (anglicized as Confucius) Confucius was an important Chinese philosopher. stressed the importance of order to achieve harmony.

62 Confucianism believed that if people knew and did what they should do, then harmony would occur Believed humans were innately good and that if treated with respect would obey righteous leaders

63 Confucianism Belief system included: traditions of respect for elders and the Mandate of Heaven held the key to social order the family served as a model for society as a whole The eldest male of the family held a moral obligation to lead and care for his household each member of the family was obliged to obey.

64 Social Classes in Chinese Society Older generations were highly respected. Merchants were not seen as working for the good of society Lived in strict social groups people were expected to behave according to their social position

65 Patriarchal Family Family members were not equals Top oldest male (father), followed by males in chronological order, then female Women's role in society was to produce a male heir Role of the Father Determined education, career and marriages for his children Controlled finances Rewarded or punished as he saw fit

66 D. Explain how geography contributed to the movement of people and ideas, include: Silk Roads and Indian Ocean Trade.

67 Silk Roads Central Asia was home to many nomadic societies relied on farming/grazing made these societies experts on the use of pack animals transport technologies combined with the trade in silk, cotton cloth, horses, spices, perfumes and slaves led to the rise of the Silk Road Spread Chinese inventions

68 Silk Roads functioned primarily as a relay system with each merchant only traveling a portion of the full length of the road individuals rarely traveled the full length of the trade routes, elements of culture and technology did There was cultural exchange

69 Silk Roads examples of this include: Buddhism spread from India to China Christianity spread to the east New crops were introduced to China (alfalfa, grapes) Rome (peaches, apricots) Middle East (rice, sugarcane, and cotton)

70 Indian Ocean Trade predictable nature of the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean made navigation easier led to the rise of a vast network of trade between East Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China New technologies begin to develop to make sailing and trading more efficient

71 Indian Ocean Trade seasonal nature of the monsoon winds forced long stays by sailors in their various ports of call Created temporary communities all over the trading network where the temporary culture would leave an impact

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