Religion. How Do We Define It?

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1 Religion How Do We Define It?

2 What is Religion? In your skeletal notes, jot down a definition for the word religion.

3 The Academic Definition Religion-a system of faith and worship

4 Monotheistic Religions Worship ONE god What are some religions that worship one god?

5 Polytheistic Religions Worship MORE THAN ONE god What are some religions that worship more than one god?

6 Nontheism A belief in no god(s) Are there any religions that do not worship any gods?

7

8 Section Two Hinduism

9 When & Where Was it Established? Established c BCE Developed in the Indus River Valley Can t be traced back to one founder No single set of ideas

10 World Map View

11 Indus River Valley

12 What Is the Ultimate Goal? Free the soul from illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of everyday life.

13 Two Souls atman-individual soul of a living person Brahman-the world soul; unites all atmans

14 Moksha Moksha=liberation and understanding Moksha occurs when a person understands the relationship between atman and Brahman Reward is release from life in this world.

15 How Long Does Achieving Moksha Take? More than one lifetime

16 How Does One Achieve This Goal? 3 Ways: Path of right thinking Path of right action Path of religious devotion

17 The Path of Right Thinking By studying Upanishads Upanishads-sacred texts that document discussions between student and teacher Discuss how one can achieve moksha

18 The Path of Right Action Staying within your caste (job, marriage, etc.) Caste-hereditary social class Cows are sacred No beef Vegetarianism

19 The Path of Religious Devotion Worship at temples Worship at shrines at home

20 Reincarnation Reincarnation-when an individual soul is born again and again until moksha is achieved

21 In Your Notes Explain how the video represents the concept of reincarnation.

22 Karma Karma- good or bad deeds; follow the soul from one reincarnation to another Karma influences a person s next life.

23 Karma Continued After watching the following video, compose 2-3 sentences describing what you think the man s reincarnation will be like.

24 Dharma The order, organization, and customs of the universe. Applies to humans and nature.

25 Main Deities of Hinduism Brahma the Creator Vishnu the Protector/Preserver Shiva the Destroyer

26 Brahma Created the world and its creatures

27 Vishnu Preserve and protects the universe Returns to earth to restore balance of good and evil

28 Shiva Job is to destroy the universe in order to recreate it Seen as good and evil In your notebook: Why might Shiva be seen as both good and evil?

29 The Om, or Aum Hindu sound/symbol of worship. A-Beginning U-Progress M-Termination In your notes, match each letter to its corresponding deity.

30 The Golden Rule of Hinduism This is the sum of duty; do naught onto others what you would not have them do unto you." Does this rule sound familiar to you? Where have you heard it? Do you agree with it?

31 Section Three Judaism

32 When & Where Was Judaism Established? ~2000 BCE In the Middle East City of Ur

33 What is a Prophet? A prophet is a person who receives messages from a god

34 Who Established It? Abraham God chose him as the father of the Hebrew (Jewish) people The agreement between them is known as a covenant

35 What Was the Agreement? Abraham: I agreed to worship one god, Yahweh Yahweh (God): Abraham and his descendants are the chosen people and I will give them the Holy Land of Canaan (modern day Israel)

36 Where is the Promised Land Today?

37 Ethical Monotheism Monotheism where God is the source of ethics. It is God s job to guide humans to morality.

38 In Your Notebook... Up until this point, people of the world practiced polytheism. What do you think happened to Abraham and his people for being different?

39 The Promised Land Abraham and his followers wandered the desert in search of the promised land. They ended up in Egypt. What do you think happened to them there?

40 Hebrews in Egypt While in Egypt, the Jewish people were made into slaves.

41 What Tasks are the Slaves Completing?

42 Read pages of My Very First Golden Bible for the rest of the story. Be sure to jot down some important points in your skeletal notes.

43 Important Points... Hebrews leaving Egypt is called the Exodus Wandered for 40 years Moses led the Jews back to Canaan Ten Commandments are basis for Jewish law

44 The Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments can be found in the Torah (the Jewish Bible) Torah-the first five books of the Bible

45 Where Do Jews Worship? A synagogue

46 Section Four Buddhism

47

48 When & Where Was it Established? Established c. 500 BCE Started in India In your notes, please name 3 countries that Buddhism spread to.

49 Who Established It? Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, a Hindu prince

50 Similar Concepts as Hinduism Reincarnation Karma Dharma

51 What is the Ultimate Goal? Free the soul from all wants and sadness.

52 Nirvana Freedom from all want Seen as a destination and a state of mind

53 The Four Noble Truths All of life is pain and suffering Pain and suffering are caused by not being able to satisfy your wants End pain and suffering by getting rid of all wants End wants by following the 8 Fold Path

54 The Eightfold Path The Eightfold Path is divided into three parts: wisdom, virtue, and concentration. Virtue-behavior showing high moral standards

55 The Eightfold Path Consists Of... The Right: Understanding, Aspiration, Speech, Action, Livelihood, Effort, Mindfulness, and Concentration

56 Section Five Christianity

57 When & Where Was It Established? c. 31 CE Jerusalem

58 Who Established It? Jesus Christ

59 Why Is Jesus So Important? Born to the Virgin Mary Miracle made Jesus both human and divine

60 The Life of Jesus Carpenter until age 30 then... Preached Taught Did good works Performed miracles

61 Jesus Death Roman emperor and Jewish leaders threatened Crucified

62 What is the Ultimate Goal of Christianity? To enter the eternal kingdom of Heaven after death

63 How Does One Achieve This Goal? Follow Ten Commandments Repent for sins Practice forgiveness and love Power and wealth not important

64 The Bible Old Testament (same as Judaism) + New Testament (starts with birth of Jesus)

65 Why Was Christianity So Popular? Appealed to everyone God accepted everybody Poor, women, slaves, etc.

66 Comparisons to Judaism Similarities: Differences: Ethical monotheism Abraham and the Ten Commandments Christianity welcomes everyone Jesus is the Messiah and the son of God

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