RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES IN ASIA

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1 RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHIES IN ASIA

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7 How does a person s religion affect his or her choices, actions and his or her environment?

8 What is Religion? Religion pertains to a person s beliefs that there is a powerful, higher being or force that causes all things and events to happen in the world.

9 R E L I G I O N Monotheism Worship and belief in one God Polytheism Worship and belief in many Gods

10 West Asia Judaism Christianity Islam Zoroastrianism

11 I. WEST ASIA Their God is called Yahweh. 1. Judaism - Began in Israel - Practiced by the Jews or Israelites - A monotheistic religion - Holy book of the Jews: Torah

12 I. WEST ASIA Their God is called Yahweh. 1. Judaism - Their leaders are called patriarchs. - Primary teachings: Ten Commandments

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14 I. WEST ASIA Their God is called Yahweh. 2. Christianity - A monotheistic religion - Holy book: Bible - Primary teaching: Love God & love others - Catholic church a denomination

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17 Their God is called Allah. I. WEST ASIA 3. Islam - Second most widespread religion - Means peace and surrender - Means the peace experienced by one who surrender to god Allah - Founder: Mohammad/Muhammad

18 Mecca where the Kaaba is located

19 City of Medina in present-day Saudi Arabia - Place where Muhammad fled from Mecca miles north of Mecca

20 5 PILLARS OF ISLAM» Shahada Allah is the only god.» Salat prayer 5 times a day facing Mecca» Zakat ready to lend a helping hand to those in need» Sawm fasting during Ramadan» Hajj pilgrimage travel to Mecca» Hajji the person who has gone to Mecca

21 I. WEST ASIA Their God is called Ahura Mazda. 4. Zoroastrianism - One of the oldest religions in the world - Founder: Zarathustra (600 B.C.) - Also known as Zoroaster in Greece - Zarathost in India and Persia - Considered a prophet

22 I. WEST ASIA Their God is called Ahura Mazda. 4. Zoroastrianism - Holy book: Zend Avesta - World consists of struggles between good and evil - Followers are found in Iran and in India

23 I. WEST ASIA Their God is called Ahura Mazda. 4. Zoroastrianism - If you do good, you go to heaven with Ahura Mazda. - If you do evil, you go to hell with Angra Mainyu or Ahriman

24 What sets Christianity apart from the other 3 religions?

25 II. SOUTH ASIA Their god is called Brahman. 1. Hinduism - Aryans established Hinduism in 1500 B.C. - Polytheistic religion - Followers are called Hindus - Sacred book: Vedas

26 II. SOUTH ASIA Their god is called Brahman. 1. Hinduism - Trimurti = Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva personifications of Brahman - Pillars of Hinduism: Karma, Samsara, Nirvana, Gopastami

27 II. SOUTH ASIA Their god is called Brahman. 1. Hinduism - Karma something that was created by or is a result of a person s actions - Samsara cycle of birth and rebirth - reincarnation his karma determines whether he will be reborn into a higher or lower form of being

28 II. SOUTH ASIA Their god is called Brahman. 1. Hinduism - Nirvana every Hindu aims to break free from the cycle of reincarnation - Moksha freedom from samsara - Nirvana real happiness and peace state of tranquility

29 II. SOUTH ASIA Their god is called Brahman. 1. Hinduism - Gopastami celebration where cows are cleaned, dressed, and offered food

30 II. SOUTH ASIA 2. Buddhism - Budh to awake / to know - Started in north India in the 6 th century B.C. - Emerged as a protest to Hinduism - Based on the teachings of Siddharta Gautama

31 II. SOUTH ASIA 2. Buddhism - Budh to awake / to know - Started in north India in the 6 th century B.C. - Emerged as a protest to Hinduism - Based on the teachings of Siddharta Gautama

32 II. SOUTH ASIA 2. Buddhism - Considered a philosophy because it focuses on the proper way of living, correct thinking and right conduct

33 II. SOUTH ASIA 2. Buddhism - 4 Noble Truths a. Life is full of suffering. b. Suffering is caused by desire. c. Suffering will end with the end of desire. d. The way to end suffering is through the Eightfold Path. (p. 270)

34 II. SOUTH ASIA 2. Buddhism - 2 types of Buddhism a. Mahayana Buddhism b. Theravada Buddhism Buddha is a teacher and a holy man

35 II. SOUTH ASIA 3. Jainism - Based on the teachings of Vardhamana Mahavira ( great hero) - Became a sadhana person who turned his back on worldly comforts - Kevala - enlightenment

36 III. EAST ASIA 1. Buddhism - Arrived in China during the Han dynasty - Variations: Japan Zen Buddhism based on Mahayana Buddhism - Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism)

37 III. EAST ASIA god - Amaterasu 2. Shinto - Shinto means kami no michi way of the gods = belief that there are gods in nature

38 IV. NORTH ASIA god - Tengri 1. Shamanism - Gained popularity during the leadership of Genghis Khan

39 1. CONFUCIANISM Emerged in a time of chaos during the Zhou dynasty. Confucius founded Confucianism Focused on right conduct and morals and good governance Ideal man shi = scholar PHILOSOPHIES IN EAST ASIA

40 PHILOSOPHIES IN EAST ASIA 1. CONFUCIANISM Man is seen as capable to develop his knowledge and become a good citizen through rigorous studying. Educated man FIT TO WORK IN THE GOVERNMENT Can this be seen in Philippine politics today? Book: Five Classics

41 2. DAOISM Gained prominence during the Zhou dynasty Established by Laozi (Lao Tzu) Based on Tao which means The Way Book: Book of the Way of Virtue PHILOSOPHIES IN EAST ASIA

42 PHILOSOPHIES IN EAST ASIA 3. LEGALISM Emerged during the Warring States Period Shang Yang and Han Feizi are the main founders of this philosophy Man is naturally evil. A philosophy driven by a system of reward and punishment.

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