1 People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C. 250 B.C. Migrations by Indo-Europeans led to major changes in trade and language as well as to the foundations of three religions: Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism.
2 People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C. 250 B.C. Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 The Indo-Europeans Hinduism and Buddhism Seafaring Traders The Origins of Judaism
3 Section-1 The Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans migrate into Europe, India, and Southwest Asia and interact with peoples living there.
4 Section-1 Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans Migrate Characteristics of Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans nomadic, pastoral people; tamed horses, rode chariots Came from the steppes dry grasslands north of the Caucasus mountains The Indo-European Language Family Language ancestral to many modern languages of Europe an Asia English, Spanish, Persian, Hindu trace origins to original Indo-European Language groups settled in different areas An Unexplained Migration B.C. Indo-Europeans migrated, moved in all directions
5 The Hittite Empire The Hittite Arrival Hittites a group of Indo-European speakers Take control of Anatolia (Asia Minor) around 2000 B.C. City-states join to form empire; dominate Southwest Asia for 450 years Hittites Adopt and Adapt Borrowed ideas from Mesopotamian culture; adopted Babylonian language Chariots and Iron Technology Hittites skilled in war; spread iron technology by trade and conquest Empire falls around 1190 B.C. after attacks from northern tribes
6 Aryans Transform India The Aryan People Aryans Indo-European people, enter Indus River Valley around 1500 B.C. Sacred writing, the Vedas, reveal much of their culture A Caste System Develops Aryans physically distinct from people of India Four castes, or social classes, develop: - priests (Brahmans) - warriors - peasants or traders - laborers People are born into their caste for life Hundreds of subgroups arise later
7 Aryans Transform India Aryan Kingdoms Arise Aryans extend settlements to other river valleys Small kingdoms arise Magadha kingdom unites all and spreads across India by 100 B.C. Epic Mahabharata reflects blending of Aryan and non-aryan culture
8 Section-2 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop The beliefs of the Vedic Age develop into Hinduism and Buddhism.
9 Section-2 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries Hinduism Collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over time No one founder with a single set of ideas Origins and Beliefs B.C. Hindu teachers create Upanishads texts of teachings Each person has atman soul united with all others in Brahman In reincarnation, people reborn to new lives A soul s good and bad deeds, karma, determines course of new life
10 Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries Hinduism Changes and Develops Over last 2,500 years different forms of gods grow in importance Today, Hindus choose own path to moksha a state of perfect understanding Hinduism and Society Hinduism strengthened the caste system New Religions Arise Jainism, a new religion, arises in 500s B.C. Jains will not harm any creature They work in trade, commerce; practice religious tolerance
11 The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Siddhartha Gautama Founder of Buddhism; priests prophesized his greatness Siddhartha s Quest Raised in isolation, Siddhartha Gautama wants to learn about world Seeks enlightenment (wisdom), how to escape human suffering Tries many methods; gains enlightenment by meditating Becomes the Buddha, the enlightened one
12 The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Origins and Beliefs Buddha begins to teach followers Preaches Four Noble Truths basic philosophy of Buddhism Fourth Noble Truth is to follow the Eightfold path to achieve nirvana Nirvana: - a perfect state of understanding - a release from selfishness and pain - a break from the chain of reincarnations, rebirths Buddha rejects caste system and multiple gods of Hinduism
13 The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment The Religious Community Some followers devote lives to religion, become monks and nuns Three bases of Buddhism: Buddha, religious community, teachings Buddhism and Society Many followers at first among poor and lower caste Monks and nuns spread Buddha s teachings Teachings written to become sacred literature
14 The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Buddhism in India Spreads to other parts of Asia Never gains firm hold in India; Hinduism remains strong Buddhist pilgrims often visit India Trade and the Spread of Buddhism Buddhism spreads by traders to: - Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra - China, Korea, Japan
15 Section-3 Seafaring Traders Trading societies extend the development of civilization beyond the Fertile Crescent region.
16 Section-3 Seafaring Traders Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean The Minoan People The Minoans, powerful seafaring people, live on Crete in Aegean Sea Dominate trade in eastern Mediterranean from 2000 to 1400 B.C. Culture influences others, especially Greeks
17 Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean Unearthing a Brilliant Civilization Excavations of Knossos, capital city of Minoan civilization, revealed: - Minoans were peaceful, athletic, lovers of nature and beauty - Women had major role, especially in religion - Sacrificed animals, and sometimes people, to gods Archaeologists name civilization Minoa after King Minos - King Minos legendary king who owned a minotaur
18 Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean Minoan Culture s Mysterious End Earthquakes in 1700 B.C. caused damage, but Minoans rebuild In 1470 B.C. major earthquakes and volcanic eruption Minoans never recover from disasters Invaders from Greece take Minoan lands
19 Phoenicians Spread Trade and Civilization The Phoenician People Phoenicians powerful traders in wealthy city-states along Mediterranean Skilled shipbuilders, seafarers; sailed around continent of Africa Commercial Outposts Around the Mediterranean Phoenicians set up colonies in western and central Mediterranean Famous for red-purple dye produced from snail Phoenicia s Great Legacy: The Alphabet Developed system of writing to record trade deals Later developed into western alphabet
20 Ancient Trade Routes Trade Links Peoples Land routes link Mediterranean world and Asia Indian traders sail to Southeast Asia and Indonesia Trade helps spread culture, ideas, religion
21 Section-4 The Origins of Judaism The Hebrews maintain monotheistic religious beliefs that were unique in the ancient world.
22 Section-4 The Origins of Judaism The Search for a Promised Land Ancient Palestine Palestine was region on eastern shores of Mediterranean Hebrew people settled in Canaan, land promised to them by God From Ur to Egypt Torah, first five books of Hebrew Bible, tells early history of Hebrews In Torah, God chose Abraham, a shepherd, to be father of Hebrew people Abraham moves family and herds from Ur to Canaan around 1800 B.C. Around 1650 B.C. Abraham s descendants move to Egypt
23 The Search for a Promised Land The God of Abraham Hebrews are monotheists, believing in one God only Yahweh Yahweh is all powerful, not a physical being A mutual promise, covenant, is made between God and Abraham Abraham promises to obey God, Yahweh promises protection
24 Moses and the Exodus Hebrews Migrate to Egypt At first Hebrews are honored in Egyptian kingdom; later become slaves Let My People Go Hebrews flee Egypt between 1300 and 1200 B.C. Bible tells of God s command that Moses lead this Exodus A New Covenant Moses receives Ten Commandments become basis of Hebrew law
25 Moses and the Exodus The Land and People of the Bible Torah tells of Hebrews wandering Sinai Desert for 40 years Arrive in Canaan form twelve tribes; judges provide leadership A Hebrew Law Women and men have separate roles, responsibilities Law includes strict justice softened by mercy Prophets arise later to interpret the law They teach people to live moral lives
26 The Kingdom of Israel Canaan Land that Hebrews believe God promised them Canaan land is harsh; Hebrews expand south and north Saul and David Establish a Kingdom Hebrews threatened by Philistines to the north Only one tribe remains, Judah; Hebrew religion called Judaism From 1020 to 922 B.C. Hebrews (Jews) unite; new kingdom called Israel King David establishes Jerusalem as capital
27 The Kingdom of Israel Solomon Builds the Kingdom David s son Solomon becomes King; makes Israel a trading empire He builds a magnificent temple and royal palace in Jerusalem The Kingdom Divides High taxes and forced labor lead Jews in north to revolt By 922 B.C. kingdom divides in two Israel in north, Judah in south 200 years of conflict follow
28 The Babylonian Captivity A Conquered People In 738 B.C. Israel and Judah pay tribute (money for peace) to Assyria By 722 B.C. Assyrians conquer Israel In 586 B.C. Babylonians conquer Judah, destroy Solomon s Temple Many surviving Jews exiled to Babylon In 539 B.C. Persians conquer Babylon; 40,000 Jews return to Jerusalem Temple and walls rebuilt; land later ruled by Persians, Greeks, Romans
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Section 1 The Indo-Europeans Global Studies I Chapter 3 Indo-Europeans Nomadic peoples from the Eurasian steppes Dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus ( the Great Steppe ) People and Ideas
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