Cultures of Persia, India, and china. WH I 4a-e

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1 Cultures of Persia, India, and china WH I 4a-e

2 Vocabulary Power Imperial Bureaucracy- How Persia governed its empire- Divided empire into provinces each with its own administrator Zoroastrianism- monotheistic religion of the Persians; belief in two opposing forces (ex. good vs. evil) Indian subcontinent- A large landmass that juts out from the continent of Asia. Caste System- In Indian society, an unchangeable social group into which a person is born. Hinduism- The dominant religion of India that emphasize obeying the laws of karma and belief in the caste system.

3 Persia, India, China Reincarnation- Rebirth of a soul based on karma; cycle of death, birth, rebirth. Harrapa and Mohejo Daro- World s first planned cities located in India (Indus River Valley)

4 Vocabulary Power Karma- All thoughts and actions result in future consequences Vedas and Upanishads-Sacred writings of the Hindu religion Siddhartha Guatama- The founder of Buddhism. He rejected the caste system and believed that all could reach enlightenment (nirvana).

5 Vocabulary Power Four Noble Truths- Ideas associated with Buddhism about life, pain, and suffering Eightfold Path to Enlightenment- The Path described by Buddha to be released from human life and suffering (Nirvana). Aryan- People who migrated into central India and set up the caste system.

6 Vocabulary Power Asoka- Ruler in India who sent his missionaries and their writings to spread Buddhism from India to China. Mauryan Empire- Ruling family that unified most of India and under Asoka helped spread Buddhism Gupta Empire- Golden Age during which the Gupta dynasty ruled and peace and prosperity flourished in India.

7 Vocabulary Power Confucianism- taught by Confucius, a chinese scholar,- harmony resulted when people accepted their role in society. Taoism- Chinese philosophy in which its ultimate goal is to live in harmony with nature. Qin Shi Huangdi- First emperor who built a strong central government. Started the Great Wall of China. Divine- Given from above by God or spirits

8 Vocabulary Power Mandate of Heaven- The divine right to rule based upon providing a good, uncorrupt strong government for the people. Silk Roads- Trade routes that linked China to Europe. Civil Service System- system endorsed by Confucious that granted government jobs based upon examination scores Ancestor Worship- The Chinese belief that called upon spirits of their ancestors to bring good fortune to the family.

9 Vocabulary Power Harmony with nature- The ultimate goal of Taoism Yin/Yang- Two forces of the universe that must be kept in harmony and balance to ensure the well-being of the universe- The Good/ Bad---** Represents opposites of Confucianism and Taoism**

10 What was the Persian Empire? Persians, who came from Central Asia, conquered much of Mesopotamia and surrounding areas. Persia became a great empire that stretched throughout the Middle East under the ruler Darius.

11 Persian Empire

12 Persian Empire Tolerated the beliefs and customs of conquered people Developed an imperial bureaucracy by dividing the empire into 20 provinces each with its own administrator- (They had to pay tribute to the king) Zoroastrianism: Religion of Persia although other religions were tolerated Belief in two opposing forces in the universe (Good vs. Evil) Ahura Mazda was the Supreme God Road system to connect the empire

13 1. Hinduism A. unchangeable social group in India 2. Eightfold Path B. monotheistic faith developed in Persia 3. caste system C. Sought to live in harmony with nature 4. Taoism D. way to be released from human life and suffering 5. Confucianism E. Emphasizes obeying the laws of karma; dominant religion in India F. harmony resulted when people accepted their role in society G. The Four Noble Truths H. Sacred text of Hinduism

14 Why were physical Geography and location important to the development of Indian civilization? Indian civilization began in the Indus River Valley and spread to the Ganges River Valley then through the Indian subcontinent. It continued with little interruption because of geographic location. Physical (geographic) barriers such as the Himalayas, Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean made invasion more difficult However, mountain passes in the Hindu Kush provided migration routes into the Indian subcontinent.

15 Indus and Ganges The Indus and the Ganges were the most important rivers to the Indian subcontinent

16 Indus River Valley civilization (Harrapa and Mohenjo- Daro) Harrapa and Mohenjo- Daro were early planned cities in the Indus Valley ** Refer to Atlas Sheet**

17 What impact did the Aryans have on India? Aryans (Indo-Aryans) Invaders known as Aryans migrated through Northwestern India and blended their beliefs with those of the indigenous people Established the caste system which influenced all social interactions and choices of occupation.

18 What was the caste System? Brahmans (priests ) Kshatriya (warrior) Vaisya (farmers, traders, merchants) Sudra (slave and servant class) Pariahs (untouchables- those considered outside of Indian culture)

19 Mauryan Empire- Asoka (Emperor) Continued political unification of much of India Contributions of the Mauryan Empire include: spread of Buddhism free hospitals veterinarian clinics good roads

20 Gupta Empire Golden Age of classical Indian culture Contributions included: mathematics (concept of zero) Medical advances (set bones) astronomy (concept of earth as round) new textiles (cotton) literature

21 What are Major Beliefs of Hinduism? Hinduism influenced Indian society and culture and is still practiced today. Major Beliefs: Reincarnation - rebirth based on karma Karma- Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences

22 What are the Beliefs of Hinduism? The Vedas and the Upanishads are the sacred writings of Hinduism. Belief in one God with many different forms. Brahma- The Creator Vishnu- The Preserver Shiva- The Destroyer Hinduism spread along major trade routes throughout India

23 How did Buddhism Develop? Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), founder of Buddhism, was dissatisfied with the many ceremonies and rituals of Hinduism. He meditated for 48 days and believed that he found the cause and cure for suffering.

24 What are the Beliefs of Buddhism? The Buddha spent the rest of his life teaching others what he had discovered- The Four Noble Truths 1. All life is suffering, pain, and sorrow 2. The cause of suffering is the desire for things that are really illusions such as riches, power, and long life. 3. The only cure for suffering is to overcome desire 4. The only way to overcome desire is to follow the Eightfold Path.

25 What was the Eightfold Path to Enlightenment? Living a moral life avoiding evil words or actions. Right views Right speech Right conduct Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Through meditation, a person might reach nirvana (release from the cycles of rebirth). Right contemplation

26 How Did Buddhism Spread? When India was ruled by Asoka, he sent his missionaries and their writings to spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia.

27 China Chinese civilization flourished along the Huang He (Yellow River) where it was shielded from attack by physical barriers. A number of dynasties ruled China. Chinese rulers were considered divine, and served under a Mandate of Heaven as long as their rule was just. Refer to chart for examples... Central to Chinese beliefs is ancestor worship.

28 Great Wall of China Migratory invaders raided Chinese settlements from the North. As a result, the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huangdi started the Great Wall of China to protect China. When all of the sections were completed it stretched 1,500 miles across

29 WHat was the Silk Road? Silk was made in China and one of many goods traded The Silk Roads directed trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome. Animals, foods, furs, and metals were traded.

30

31 What are the contributions of Classical China? Civil service examinations- government officials were selected by the knowledge they demonstrated on exams instead of just being appointed. Paper was invented which made government record keeping and communication easier. Silk produced and traded in China Porcelain (used in making pottery and other items).

32 Chinese Porcelain

33 How did Confucianism change the social order in china? Confucius, a Chinese philosopher, argued that happiness of the people was more important than the privileges of the leaders. Humans are good not bad Ancestor Worship Emphasis on Education

34 Five key Relationships of Confucianism RULER- Subject Respect for elders was Father- Son emphasized. Husband- Wife Code of politeness is still practiced today Older brother- Younger brother Friend-Friend

35 How did taoism form chinese culture and values? Taoism provided an alternative to Confucianism. Taoist believe in letting nature take its course. The following are key beliefs of Taoists humility (being humble) leading a simple life and inner peace Achieving harmony with nature Yin/ Yang (balance between opposing forces) represents opposites of Confucianism and Taoism

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