Hinduism and Buddhism

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1 Hinduism and Buddhism PURPOSE OF SECTION: Explain the development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism in India and subsequent diffusion of Buddhism.

2 Hinduism National religion of India ॐ Based on variety of beliefs and practices Is henotheistic: recognize existence of many gods but believe in only one supreme god

3 Hinduism God: Brahman all of the universe is one entity Three most important facets/aspects of Brahman: Brahma Creator Continues to create new creations Vishnu Preserver Preserves new creation, sometimes by traveling to earth if necessary Shiva Destroyer Can be compassionate or destructive

4 Hinduism Belief in reincarnation (or transmigration of the soul) The soul is reborn into another body after death Karma determines where you are born Karma- the accumulation of good or bad deeds Therefore your actions determine your station in life

5 Hinduism (Reincarnation, cont.) One can be born into a higher caste or lower caste Eventually, one can escape the cycle and reach enlightenment Called moksha Prayer, rituals, self-denial and rejection of worldly possessions can help achieve this

6 Hinduism Belief in dharma Dharma: duties you are expected to perform, the ethical way in which you are supposed to behave Belief in ahimsa: nonviolence towards all living things

7 ॐ Hindu Symbols Aum (or Om) Represents Brahman, everything that is absolute in the universe Swastika Represents everything that is good in the world Means it is well or may good prevail Color: Saffron (Represents fire from Brahman)

8 Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gautama Called Buddha Means Enlightened One Legend: Born into luxury, became shocked when he drove around in his chariot and saw poverty and sickness Left wife and newborn son to wander around India at age 29 Lived as hermit for 7 years until finally finding enlightenment

9 Buddhism Related to Hinduism Shares belief of: Karma (accumulation of good or bad deeds) Dharma (but in this case is the teachings of Buddha telling you how to act/live) Reincarnation (rebirth) Differs: Rejection of caste system

10 Caste System The caste system divides Hindus into four main categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. There is another group that is made up of the untouchables. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the Hindu God of creation.

11

12 Buddhism Teachings: Four Noble Truths: 1. The truth of suffering (dukkha) All people suffer and know sadness and sorrow 2. The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya) People suffer because of their desires 3. The truth of the end of suffering (nirhodha) Suffering could end by elimination desires 4. The truth of the path frees us from suffering (magga) By following the Eightfold Path one could eliminate desires

13 Buddhism Eightfold Path 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Know truth Resist evil Say nothing to hurt others Respect life Work for the good of others Free your mind from evil Control your thoughts Practice meditation

14 Buddhism Purpose: To reach nirvana (enlightenment) More philosophy than religion, but can be considered both or either The Middle Way is important Away from extremes Moderation

15 Eight Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism Right-coiled White Conch Precious Umbrella Dharma Wheel Auspicious Drawing Victory Banner Lotus Flower Golden Fish Vase of Treasure

16 Color Symbolism in Buddhism Blue = coolness, infinity Black = hate, primordial darkness White = knowledge, purity Red = sacred blood, life Green = balance, harmony Yellow = earth, renunciation

17 Diffusion of Buddhism The first great missionary faith Spread into Afghanistan by A.D. 1 Spread into China during mid 1st century A.D. Reached Japan and Korea by A.D. 500

18 Diffusion of Buddhism Ashoka was the first ruler to send out Buddhist missions to convert other nations, helping the religion spread

19 Diffusion of Buddhism

20 Diffusion of Buddhism In some places, Buddhism merged with local traditions Examples: Zen Buddhism in Japan Pure Land and Chan Buddhism in China Buddhism in Vietnam

21 Buddhism Throughout Asia Japan

22 Buddhism Throughout Asia China

23 Buddhism Throughout Asia Vietnam

24 Buddhism Throughout Asia Thailand Afghanistan

25 Ancient China PURPOSE OF SECTION: Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou and Qin.

26 Ancient China Early societies in China developed along the Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow River) It is the 3rd longest river in the world People lived here for 27,000 years

27 Shang China (1700B.C B.C.) The Shang was the first Chinese dynasty Agrarian Did not use plows Only used wooden and stone tools First Chinese dynasty with written language Used oracle bones

28 Oracle Bones Sometimes called dragon bones Used to predict the future Process: A question was written on the bone. The bone was fired and a T shaped crack appeared The crack was interpreted The interpretation was then written on the bone. After the predicted event occurred, the date of the occurrence was also written on the bone.

29 Oracle Bone

30 Shang Religion The Shang religion had two main components: Worship of Shang Ti Supreme god who ruled over lesser gods and the forces of the earth (rain, wind, sun) Ancestor Worship One act of worship was human sacrifice When a king died, often hundreds of servants would be sacrificed with him For less important events, like the opening of a temple, smaller numbers would be sacrificed

31 Shang China (1700B.C B.C.) Shang capital was at Zhengzhou It had walls 30 feet high, 65 feet wide and over 4 miles long!

32 Zhou China (1100 B.C. 250 B.C.) Nomadic tribe that defeated the Shang dynasty Established the idea of the Mandate of Heaven to validate their rule Mandate of Heaven: Authority granted by heaven to deserving rulers

33 Zhou China (1100 B.C. 250 B.C.) Feudal system of government Land given to vassals in return for loyalty, etc Cities divided into two parts: One for Zhou citizens One for Shang persons

34 Zhou China (1100 B.C. 250 B.C.) Map of Zhou China at it s greatest extent

35 Warring States Period (475 B.C. 221 B.C.) The last portion of the Zhou dynasty is called the Warring States Period This is because many large states in China were fighting to control the whole empire

36 Warring States Period (475 B.C. 221 B.C.) The Warring States Period is considered the Golden Age of Chinese Philosophy Confucianism was developed during this time Taoism was developed during this time Legalism was developed during this time

37 Confucianism Founded by Kongfuzi ( B.C.) (anglicized as Confucius) Taught that social harmony and good government would return to China if people lived ethically Writings were collected and called the Analects

38 Taoism Based on teachings of Laozi Called Tao Te Ching Emphasizes harmony of individual with nature The tao universal force that guides all things

39 Legalism Developed from Hanfeizi Humans are evil by nature and need a strict law Used to support strict laws and harsh punishments

40 Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) China was unified by Qin Shihuangdi Name means First Emperor Utilized cavalry to conquer their enemies Divided his empire into 36 military districts Each had a civil governor, a military commander, and an imperial inspector Each was subdivided into counties

41 Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) Legalist form of government Qin Shihuangdi destroyed the power of the nobles All nobility were removed from their positions and sent to live in the capital This prevented local leaders from becoming strong enough to challenge the Emperor

42 Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) 213 B.C. - Afraid of rebellion from the literate, Qin Shihuangdi burned thousands of books relating to philosophy and government Peasants hated Qin Shihuangdi for his forced-labor gangs which constructed immense public works

43 End of Qin China Qin Shihuangdi died in 210 B.C. and was succeeded by his son Son was weak leader Hatred for Qin boiled over into rebellion in 206 B.C.

44 Qin China The greatest extent of Qin territory

45 Achievements of the Qin Standardized the Chinese language Standardized system of measurements and currency Set up a unified law code for China We get the modern day name for China from the Qin

46 Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) Famous for the Terracotta Army

47 Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.) Connected walls built along the northern border of China to form the Great Wall It stretched 4,000 miles

48 Confucianism PURPOSE OF SECTION: Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture; include the examination system, the Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, the status of merchants, and the patriarchal family, and explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Korea.

49 Confucianism Founded by Kongfuzi ( B.C.) (anglicized as Confucius) Taught that social harmony and good government would return to China if people lived ethically Writings were collected and called the Analects

50 Confucianism Stressed the importance of five relationships: Ruler & subject Parent & child Filial piety: children respecting their parents Husband & wife Old & young Friend & friend

51 Confucianism & Government Confucius taught that teaching ethics to people would allow them police each other Confucius believed in a meritocracy That means that jobs are given to the most qualified, not just to those of noble birth

52 Examination System System for developing the Chinese bureaucracy The most qualified candidates would be hired This would be determined by written examinations in Confucian writings and teachings Eventually, almost all people in China could take these exams and work for the government Why was it beneficial to work for the government?

53 Mandate of Heaven Authority granted by heaven to deserving rulers If rulers were just and fair, heaven would not allow them to be overthrown If rulers were immoral, they would be overthrown What consequences does this have?

54 Social Classes in Chinese Society Landowners Peasants Merchants

55 Status of Landowners in Chinese culture Wealthy Powerful formed first bureaucracies

56 Status of Peasants in Chinese culture 90% of all the people Most lived in villages and walked to fields surrounding their villages Paid taxes of produce and livestock and had to work one month a year on public works projects (roads, walls, etc.) Could be drafted into the army

57 Status of Merchants in Chinese culture Includes: shopkeepers, traders, & bankers Generally not allowed to take civil service examinations Confucianism said pursuit of profit = bad

58 Patriarchal Family Family members were not equals Top oldest male (father), followed by males in chronological order, then females Role of the Father Determined education, career and marriages for his children Controlled finances Rewarded or punished as he saw fit Structured, each member had specific duties

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