1. Subcontinent - A large distinguishable part of a continent

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1 I. India A. Geography - Located in southern Asia, India is a triangular shaped subcontinent. 1. Subcontinent - A large distinguishable part of a continent

2 2. Due to the geographic diversity of India, over 110 languages spoken.

3 3. Himalaya Mountains - Located north of the subcontinent; highest mountains in the world.

4 4. Deccan Plateau - Extends from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India. Plateau: area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain.

5 5. Monsoons - Seasonal winds that carry heavy rainfall across the subcontinent

6 a) Wet Winds - During summer, the monsoon blows from the SW. Farmers rely on these rains.

7 b) Dry Winds - During winter, the wind pattern reverses direction. The air is cool and dry.

8 II. Indus Valley Civilization A. Indus River Valley - From 3000 B.C B.C., this river valley in the NW gave life to civilization in India. Why do civilizations arise in river valleys? What other civilizations arose in river valleys?

9 1. Two major cities, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, developed approximately 400 miles from one another.

10 2. Public wells provided a regular supply of water for all inhabitants. Bathrooms with advanced drainage. Wastewater flowed out to drains located under streets. Public bath

11 3. Economy based on farming. The Indus flooded ever year, providing rich soil to grow crops (wheat, barley, and peas). Also, trade took place across the Indus to as far as Mesopotamia.

12 4. Arrival of the Aryans - Around 2000 B.C., a group of Indo-European - speaking nomadic peoples began to move out of the steppes of central Asia into the subcontinent.

13 a) Around 1000 B.C. they started writing in Sanskrit, an Indo-European language.

14 Indo European Languages

15 Indo-European Languages Indo-European Cognates

16 b) Gender Roles in India Men were dominant Men: Inherited property Were priests Could be educated if upper class A woman sometimes performed Suttee she threw herself on her husband s funeral pyre

17 What was the name of the first civilization in India? What factors of civilization were present in the first civilization of India? What is the monsoon? What are the two types of monsoon in India? India What is the mountain range in northern India? What impact have they had on Indian history? Define Subcontinent CHECKPOINT What language did the Aryans bring with them to India?

18 III. Hinduism A. Belief system of the Aryans and native peoples

19 B. Evidence about early Hinduism is in the Vedas, hymns and religious ceremonies passed down orally and eventually written down.

20 C. Caste System - Hinduism developed a rigid class structure known as the caste system. It held that society was broken up into four varnas or social groups, which determined occupation, marriage, and other social facts.

21 5. Untouchables - People outside the caste system; performed jobs that made others ritually impure trash collection, handling dead bodies, etc.

22 D. Polytheistic or Monotheistic? - Hindus worship many gods. These gods are all different aspects of one Supreme Being, called Brahman.

23 Beliefs of Hinduism E. Rebirth (or reincarnation) - Hindus believe that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death. 1. Karma - Force generated by a person s actions that determines how the person will be reborn.

24 F. Other Hindu practices and beliefs Yoga is the path to union with God Yoga is training the mind and body to be still The Ganges River is sacred Bathing in the Ganges brings spiritual benefits Ganges festival

25 2. Dharma (Truth or divine law)-requires people to do their duty. More is expected of a higher caste. The belief in rebirth reinforces a rigid caste system. After all, someone born into a Brahmin family must deserve his privileges. It also provides hope: by performing virtuous action (karma), one can hope for a better rebirth.

26 Checkpoint 1. Describe three beliefs of Hinduism. 2. What is the most holy river in Hinduism? Why? 3. What is the caste system? What does it determine specifically?

27 IV. Buddhism A. In the 6 th century B.C., Buddhism appeared in northern India. 1. Founder - Siddhartha Gautama (or simply, the Buddha, the Enlightened One ) Let s watch a brief film clip about Tibetan Buddhism (4:18).

28 Siddhartha gave up a privileged life Tried asceticism (fasting, prolonged deprivation) Abandoned asceticism for the Middle Way Attained enlightenment under the bodhi tree Taught his disciples how to achieve enlightenment

29 B. Teachings of Buddhism Samsara the cycle of rebirth Karma action, or cause and effect Dharma Buddha s teaching Nirvana the goal of life. It is spiritual enlightenment, the end of cyclical rebirth. B. The Four Noble Truths 1. Life is full of pain and suffering 2. The cause of suffering desire 3. The way to end suffering is to end desire 4. The way to end desire is to follow the Eightfold Path

30 A Buddhist practices - Right 1. view 2. intention 3. speech 4. action 5. livelihood 6. effort 7. mindfulness 8. concentration The Eightfold Path

31 C. Buddhists reject the caste system and the gods identified with Hinduism. Some regard Buddhism as a philosophy, not a religion.

32 E. Stupas Buddhist shrines. Indian Stupa established by Asoka Oldest stupa in existence

33 1) These stupas have spread to China and Japan. This is evidence of cultural diffusion. Stupa in China Stupa in Japan

34 II. Empires in India A. The Mauryan Empire - The first great Indian empire, located in northern India. 1. It flourished during the reign of Emperor Aśoka.

35 a) The edicts of Aśoka Aśoka made laws (edicts) and published them all over his empire. Who does this remind us of?

36 1) Aśoka built stupas that displayed his law system 2) Buddhist principles guided the laws

37 Example of Aśoka s Edicts (no notes) Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi (Aśoka), hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dhamma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed. What Buddhist principle does this edict illustrate?

38 Example of Aśoka s Edicts Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, desires that all religions should reside everywhere, for all of them desire selfcontrol and purity of heart. But people have various desires and various passions, and they may practice all of what they should or only a part of it. But one who receives great gifts yet is lacking in self-control, purity of heart, gratitude and firm devotion, such a person is mean What Buddhist principle does this edict illustrate?

39 b) Trade India stood at the center of a network of trade by sea. This network linked the Pacific region to SW Asia, to India, to Africa, to the Med. Sea. On land, India linked to the Silk Road to the North, in the Kushān Empire. The Silk Road stretched from China to Europe (Roman Empire). Is trade with other regions good? Why (not)? What can trade with other regions lead to?

40 Ancient Trade Routes

41 1) As we have seen, Buddhism spread through missionary activity and extensive trade.

42 B. In A.D. 320, the Gupta Empire was formed by Chandra Gupta in the Ganges Valley. Due to good leadership, the Gupta Empire created a Golden Age of Indian civilization. Gupta temple to Vishnu 1. Both Buddhism and Hinduism flourished in India.

43 The Gupta Empire The Gupta Empire actively engaged in trade (esp. salt, cloth, and iron), and cities along the trade routes prospered. In the late fifth century A.D., Huns attacked and weakened the Empire. It eventually collapsed.

44 Indian Accomplishments India produced great works in almost all cultural fields, including literature, architecture, and science.

45 Literature The Vedas were recorded in Sanskrit and contained religious chants and stories. India s great epics, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, tell of the legendary deeds of Great Indian warriors. The Bhagavad Gita, is a sermon by the god Krishna on the eve of a major battle.

46 Mathematics Indian mathematicians also introduced the concept of the zero, and used a symbol (0) for it. This numerical system the Indian-Arabic numerical system was adopted by Arab scholars, and eventually by Europeans. What concept that we have learned does the spread of this idea illustrate?

47 Medicine India developed a system of medicine called Ayurveda Ancient Indias may have practiced inoculation to protect against smallpox

48 Review Timeline 250 B.C. Height of Aśoka s power 483 B.C.-Siddhartha Gautama dies 320 A.D. - Gupta Empire created 3000 B.C. - Indus River Valley civilization founded 600 A.D. - Gupta Empire collapses 183 B.C.-Mauryan Empire collapsed 2000 B.C. - Invasion of the Aryans

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