1 Unit 1 Lesson 1 Geography, etc Cartographers,, or map makers, face two primary problems when drawing maps: 1) showing proper size, & 2) showing accurate shape. The processes, or methods, used by cartographers to make maps are called map projections.
2 Unit 1 Lesson 1 Geography, etc General Geographic Influences on Climate 1) The further from the equator you travel, the cooler it becomes. 2) Land warms & cools more quickly than water. Large bodies of water can moderate temperature changes. 3) In general, the higher the elevation,, the cooler the climate. 4) Mountain ranges can affect regional rainfall. 5) Ocean currents can greatly affect a region s climate.
3 Unit 1 Lesson 1 Geography, etc Basic Chronological Terms B.C.- before Christ. (please note: the higher the date, the earlier it is.) A.D.- anno domini (if a date does not have BC with it, it is AD) decade- ten years. century- 100 years. millennium- 1,000 years. Please note that if you read 16th century, or Sixteenth century, this would mean the 1500s!
4 Unit 1 Lesson 2 Prehistory Prehistory is the time period before man had invented writing. It is difficult to determine exactly what happened during this period because all the historian has to work with are the fossils and artifacts that have been left behind. The accurate interpretation and dating of these items becomes very important.
5 Unit 1 Lesson 2 Prehistory Difficulties in Interpreting Archaeological Findings 1) Most dating methods are not as accurate as we are led to believe. 2) The archaeological evidence we have is always incomplete, just a sample of a time and place. Since this sample may not be truly representative, any conclusions we draw should be tentative.
6 Unit 1 Lesson 2 Prehistory Important Early Periods 1) Paleolithic Period (Paleo- old, lithos-stone) stone) 2) End of the Ice Age 3) Neolithic Period (Neo- new) 4) Bronze Age 5) Iron Age
7 Unit 1 Lesson 3 Civilization Factors Required for Civilization 1) The most important requirement is a surplus of food. 2) A surplus of food then allows for a diversification of labor.
8 Unit 1 Lesson 3 Civilization Four Early Civilizations 1) Indus River Valley Indus River 2) Shang- Yellow River 3) Egyptian- Nile River 4) Sumerian- Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
9 Unit 1 Lesson 3 Civilizations
10 Unit 1 Lesson 3 Civilization Five Key Characteristics of Civilizations 1) They have organized governments. 2) They usually have an organized religion. 3) They use a division of labor. 4) They have a form of class structure. 5) They have a system of writing.
11 Unit 1 Lesson 4 Early India India s s Geography India s s three primary geographic regions: The Northern, or Ganges, Plain 1) The Northern, or Ganges, Plain The Deccan Plateau 2) The Deccan Plateau The Coastal Plains 3) The Coastal Plains
12 Unit 1 Lesson 4 Early India
13 Unit 1 Lesson 4 Early India The Dravidians built a number of impressive cities along the Indus River, especially Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These cities had a strong centralized government and were active in trade. The Indus civilization declined c BC perhaps due to natural disaster.
14 Unit 1 Lesson 4 Early India Around 1500 BC, the aggressive Aryans began to drive out the peaceful Dravidians during the Vedic Period. The Aryans adopted agrarian ways and settled into cities. The priests, or Brahmins,, dominated society, and castes (social classes) were formed.
15 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Hinduism & Buddhism Hinduism was not begun by a single person. Hindu scriptures were collected as oral traditions before they were written in sanskrit. Important teachers, or rishis, redefined Hinduism over time.
16 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Hinduism & Buddhism Hinduism is polytheistic,, with million gods. (poly- many, theos-god) The three most important Hindu gods are: Brahma, Vishnu, & Shiva. Brahman is a single force that unifies everything in the universe. All life seeks union, or moksha,, with the universal soul, or Athman. Moksha requires complete purification.
17 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Hinduism & Buddhism Hindus believe in reincarnation (that people are reborn to earth as another life form after death) because they believe it is impossible to achieve purification in one lifetime. This rebirth is NOT a good thing!
18 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Hinduism & Buddhism To achieve moksha, a person must progress upwards through the caste system by meeting the requirements, called dharma,, of the caste. Your record of how well you fulfill the dharma is called your karma. You are rewarded for good karma, punished for bad karma you get what you deserve based on your past life.
19 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Hinduism & Buddhism Buddhism s s founder was a Hindu born into a royal family, but he gave that up to seek spiritual enlightenment, or satori. He became known as Buddha, or enlightened one. Though it began in India, it never really caught on there, though it did spread to other pasts of Asia.
20 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Hinduism & Buddhism The Tripitika are the Buddhist scriptures. Major Beliefs of Buddhism 1) The are no gods, all is divine. 2) Nirvana,, the freedom from all desires & wants, is the ultimate goal. 3) ALL people can achieve nirvana. (No castes) 4) They believe in the Four Noble Truths. 4)
21 Unit 1 Lesson 5 Hinduism & Buddhism The Four Noble Truths 1) Suffering & misery are everywhere. 2) The cause of suffering is desire. 3) To end suffering, you must end desire. 4) To overcome desire, you must follow the Middle Way. Many different types of Buddhism exist today.
22 Unit 1 Lesson 6 Indian History to the Sepoy Rebellion The Maurya, Magadha, and Gupta Empires were early impressive Indian empires. India s golden age occurred during the Gupta Empire. After 1450 India was seldom unified under native rule & after 1200 India was under the rule of foreigners, first the Muslims & then the Europeans.
23 Unit 1 Lesson 6 Indian History to the Sepoy Rebellion From 1200 to the mid 1700s, much of India was ruled by a series of Muslim empires: 1) Loose control under raiders. 2) Delhi Sultanate led from Delhi. 3) The Mughal Empire. Extreme religious differences between the Muslims & Hindus frequently led to conflict.
24 Unit 1 Lesson 6 Indian History to the Sepoy Rebellion After the 1500s, the Portuguese, French, and British arrived in India. The British drove out the French, and the British East India Company controlled trade. After the Sepoy Rebellion in 1858, the British government took control. India became part of the British Empire in 1877.
25 Unit 1 Lesson 6 Indian History to the Sepoy Rebellion 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Important Indian Achievements 1) Concept of zero. 2) Concept of infinity. 3) Symbols for numbers ) Ability to set broken bones. 5) Plastic surgery. 6) Forged high quality steel. 7) Predicted solar & lunar eclipses. 8) Cataloged illnesses & cures. cures.
26 Unit 1 Lesson 7 Early China & Religions The Chinese were relatively isolated from other kingdoms. They were very ethnocentric and called themselves the Chung Kuo,, or Middle Kingdom. The Shang dynasty was the first kingdom but it fell because of the corruption of its last leaders.
27 Unit 1 Lesson 7 Early China & Religions The Chou dynasty overthrew the Shang, claiming it had the Mandate of Heaven,, or the approval of the gods. The Chin replaced the Chou, expanding the empire and ruling by force. The Han followed, undertaking projects to help the people. They started an exam system based on Confucianism for those who wanted to serve in the government.
28 Unit 1 Lesson 7 Early China & Religions Taoism 1) Lao Tze said man should not struggle against nature, but live in harmony with it. 2) At first there were no gods, later they add them after the Buddhists arrive. 3) They were very interested in nature.
29 Unit 1 Lesson 7 Early China & Religions Confucianism 1) Confucius emphasized individual responsibility in becoming virtuous. 2) All people should do their duty & lead by example. 3) A strict order was demanded within society, which would allow it to flourish.
30 Unit 1 Lesson 7 Early China & Religions Legalism 1) Han Fei Tzu started Legalism as a response to Confucianism, which he believed misjudged man s s nature. 2) Legalism said people only did the right things because of fear of punishment. 3) Leaders were to enforce laws strictly. 3)
31 Unit 1 Lesson 8 China to Empire s s End During the T ang & Song dynasties. China experienced her golden age. The Song were overthrown by the Mongols of Kublai Khan which began a long period of foreign rule with the assistance of the scholar-gentry class. The Chinese largely ignored advances made by others.
32 Unit 1 Lesson 8 China to Empire s s End The Ching dynasty s s weakness was exposed in the Opium War with Great Britain and China was forcefully opened to foreign trade. In 1911, the Chinese overthrew their emperor and established a republic.
33 Unit 1 Lesson 8 China to Empire s s End Important Chinese achievements They invented porcelain. 1) They invented porcelain. They invented the first paper. 2) They invented the first paper. They invented gunpowder. 3) They invented gunpowder. They invented silk cloth. 4) They invented silk cloth. Skilled bronze workers. 5) Skilled bronze workers. Invented the compass. 6) Invented the compass. Developed medical treatments. 7) Developed medical treatments.
34 Unit 1 Lesson 9 Japan to 1868 Japan s s first, and ONLY, dynasty has been the Yamato. Over time they sought to rule like the Chinese emperors. Eventually powerful nobles began to ignore the emperor. They were brought under control by the Shogun, or chief general, who then ruled as the de facto leader.
35 Unit 1 Lesson 9 Japan to 1868 Like the Chinese, the Japanese at first tried to restrict contact with the West, but this changed. During the Meiji Restoration, the emperor regained control and instituted a modernization program to help Japan catch up. The Meiji reforms were very successful!
36 Unit 1 Lesson 9 Japan to 1868 Important Meiji Reforms 1) Sought to industrialize the economy. 2) Gained control of government with a centralized bureaucracy. 3) Replaced samurai armies with conscripts. 4) Brought in foreign technology. 5) Compulsory education for ALL children. 6) Created a constitutional monarchy. 6)
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