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1 Unit 2 World Religions and Belief Systems Name: 1

2 Table of Contents Animism.9 Shintoism...10 Hinduism.15 Buddhism 20 Judaism..23 Christianity..27 Islam...29 Confucianism.35 2

3 What do you know about religions? Directions: Read the following statements about belief systems. Circle AGREE or DISAGREE. 1. The largest religion in the world is Christianity? 2. The country of China is officially an atheist country. 3. Saudi Arabia has the largest number of Muslims in the world. 4. The world s most shoplifted book is the Bible. 5. Muslims believe in Reincarnation AGREE AGREE AGREE AGREE AGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE 6. Brazil is the country with the largest number of Catholics in the world. AGREE DISAGREE 7. More Americans regularly attend church than any other country in the world. AGREE DISAGREE 8. The Torah is the official book for the Jewish religion. 9. Some religions believe that rocks have souls. 10. The Pope is the head of the Hindus. AGREE AGREE AGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE 3

4 Name all the religions/belief systems that you know. Do you have a religion or belief? What do you know about it? What do you want to know? 4

5 The Indo Europeans Who are they? people Where did they come from? : dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus mountains (between Black and Caspian Seas) Language: Ancestors of many of the languages of Europe, Southwest Asia and South Asia.,, Persian, and Hindi can all trace their origins back Why did they migrate? Nobody knows why BC happened in over periods of time 5

6 What is it? Related Words migration What effects does it have? Why does it happen? Directions: Use pages in your textbook to fill in the chart. 1. Land they occupied 2. Features of their culture Hittites Aryans 3. Impact they had 6

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9 Current population Location Origins Places of Worship Beliefs Many societies throughout the world Particularly and Developed throughout many parts of the world throughout the course of history take place outdoors in Belief in a with lesser and Everything in nature has a - ex.), animals, natural forces,, people everything worship - believe that the souls of the dead can have an impact on daily life Religious Leaders - medicine man or woman - conducts - served as interpreters - job was to explain - helped families become aware of problems, along with providing 9

10 Shintoism Current population Location Origins Places of Worship Beliefs Famous Writings million Mostly Developed around BC in the Japanese archipelago No one founder-evolved from religions with similar views and beliefs are resurrected in places of, or areas of importance Shinto= Worship (spirit) found in all living and non-living things -Controls such as typhoons and earthquakes Carry a deep respect for Reverence for -ancestor worship Kokiji- Record of Ancient Matters Nikong-Chronicles of Japan 10

11 Comparing Concepts Topic: ANIMISM & SHINTOISM Concept 1: Concept 2: How are they alike? How are they different? 11

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15 Current population Location Origins Vedas Beliefs million Largest portion of population in and South -developed through ancient traditions and beliefs around the Indus Valley Region Aryan traditions were eventually down in a series of works, know as the - Contains hymns,, magical spells, and instructions for conducting - Were recorded in the spoken and written language of - Veda-oldest and most of the Vedas (means all of nature is holy) - - collection of works, written by Hindu to the Vedas One true - an all powerful spirit that creates and destroys - unites all (souls of living beings) - anything that has ever lived does not die entirely. Its innerself is into another form All wise Hindus seek - Moksha- a state of (reincarnation stops and the souls blend with Brahman) 15

16 System Written in the People are divided into four groups of classes, know as The varna (or groups) make up the parts of the Hindu god Brahmin: class-the highest class - (make up the gods ) Kshatriya: Ruler and warrior class - (make up the gods ) Vaishya:, and class - (make up the gods ) Shudra: and. - (make up the gods ) People considered of the system Considered who must stay away from others Viewed as very people 16

17 Brahmin: Priest classthe highest class (make up the gods mouth) Name: Hindu Caste System The Varna make up the parts of the Hindu God Directions: Illustrate the Hindu God using the four different caste systems. (Use the definitions on the left to help you.) Be creative! Kshatriya: Ruler and warrior class (make up the gods arms) Vaishya: Landowner, artisan and merchant class (make up the gods legs) Shudra: slaves and servants. (make up the gods 17

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19 Hinduism (continued) Caste System (continued) Rules of the Caste: Karma: Dharma: Places of Worship: Famous Writings: Religious Leader: People are into a specific caste There is chance to move or in this lifetime Position in today s world is based on earlier made in a previous Always within your caste Each caste lives in a part of the Stay in the caste for a Each caste has its own life is sacred (many vegetarians) Ethical law of and Moral behavior in one life guarantees in a caste or that each member of a caste has o One must be a member of their caste to move Ex.) Boy born in a the Kshatriya (warrior) caste must be willing to River: holy river used for bathing and Benares: holy located on the Ganges River 1. : 4 major collections of hymns and prayers 2. : oldest, most important religious document of Hinduism 3. -written teachings that explain the Vedas priests- conducted the major ceremonies and rituals People follow the Vedas and dharma to improves status, and achieve Moksha- a state of perfect understanding (reincarnation stops and the souls blend with Brahman) 19

20 Also known as: Current Population: Location: The Path million Originally began in (only 1% of the population in India today) Has spread throughout the : mostly, and Southeast Asia Origins: Founded by Gautama (528BC) o Aka: Challenged ideas of the Priests Saw life as an endless cycle of - only way to escape was through Gain wisdom through, harsh and o came to him after meditating deeply for 49 days Beliefs 1. Everything in life is and sorrow 2. The cause of suffering is people s desire 3. The way to end suffering is eliminate one s 4. Follow the path 20

21 The Eightfold Path Enlightenment Religious Leaders Places of Worship Famous Writings Religious Sects Buddha s guide for Movement through path is like a staircase o each step must be before moving on to the next (can take multiple ) 1. right 2. right 3. right 4. right 5. right 6. right 7. right 8. right o by following the Eightfold Path, could reach o Buddha taught followers to treat all living things with loving kindness Nirvana- - - Most famous leader- - leader of Tibetan Buddhism -Buddhist monks and followers tend to worship in - - religious shrines established that contain the relics of Buddha. Many make pilgrimages to stupas and other religious sites Tripitaka (Three Baskets of Wisdom) - earliest written scriptures based on Buddha s teachings Theravada Buddhism Stressed life as the way to reach nirvana Respected Buddha as a, but not as a Spread to Ceylon, Burma, Thailand Mahayana Buddhism Worshipped Buddha and other enlightened ones as Spread to China, Tibet, Japan and Korea 21

22 Comparing Concepts Topic: HINDUISM & BUDDHISM 22

23 Current population: million Judaism Location: scattered throughout the world, largest area is and Origins: Began around 1800 B.C. Abraham was instructed by God ( ) to move his people to Canaan. o The agreement became known as the. Hebrews moved to to escape famine in 1650B.C. o by the Egyptians led the Hebrews out of Egypt between 1300 and 1200 B.C. o Known as the Moses made another covenant with Yahweh and received the came during the reign of three kings- Saul, David and Solomon o Led to the establishment of Kingdom of Israel in two after Solomon o to the north o to the south Forced from their homeland by the Romans in 132 A.D. o Know as : Regained land of Israel in 1948 A.D. following WWII Beliefs: Monotheism: o Yahweh loves and protects, but expects people to be held accountable for their Serve God by studying the Torah and living it s teaching 23

24 The o First four concern Hebrews relationship with o Last six concern the Hebrews relationship with Famous Writings: Tenakh- known as the o - part of the Old Testament Contains the first five books of the Hebrew Bible Talmudo Contains stories laws, medical knowledge, and debates about moral choices Places of Worship: Religious leaders: 24

25 Directions: Complete the cluster map based on your discussion in class. Prefix and it s meaning: Root word and it s meaning: Related words: monotheism Meaning of entire word Directions: Use your textbook to complete the chart. 1. Who was Abraham and what role did he play in Judaism? (pp ) 2. How did the religious beliefs of the Hebrews differ from other groups? (p. 78) 3. What was the new covenant between God and the Hebrews after they fled Egypt? (p.79) 4. Why did the kingdom of Israel divide in 922 BC? (p. 81) 25

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27 Christianity Current Population: 2 billion ( ) Location: Scattered throughout the world. Largest areas- and Origins: Began with the birth of in the town of Bethlehem between 6 and 4 AD Christ grew up in the holy land of Jerusalem Christ was a and spread the belief of He promised and Viewed by many as the Messiah (savior of the Jews) Because of his rising popularity and refusal to worship Roman gods, Roman leader Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus to o Christians believe Christians were persecuted by the Romans for over 250 years o Those willing to die for their religion were known as 312AD Constantine legalizes Christianity in the Roman Empire 392AD Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. o Christianity will now spread throughout 27

28 Beliefs: : there is only one God Jesus was the Jesus died to save humanity from Jesus death and resurrection prove eternal life exists and is possible for others Add Jesus life and teachings o the Testament to the teachings of the o the Testament Famous Writings: o Contains written records of and teachings (the New Testament) to the teachings of (the Old Testament) Places of Worship: Religious Leaders: - head of the Roman Catholic Church - head of the Greek Orthodox Church,, monks, and How is Christianity similar to Judaism? 28

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31 Islam Current Population: Billion Location: Most reside in the countries that make up the Origins: (570 BC) Muhammad was an Arab Trader who was instructed by the Angel Gabriel to proclaim the word of GOD. Forced to flee Mecca to Medina- had not converted many people Hegira o of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina o in Islam o Marked the of Islam - gained many converts Muhammad Returns: o 630 AD returns to with a large following o images of other o becomes the for all Muslims Death of Muhammad o 632AD o across the Arabian Peninsula and brought Famous Writing: (Qur an) o of the Muslims o Contains the revelations of Muhammad Places of Worship: - most famous place to worship Religious Leaders: - ultimate religious leader of the Muslims No clergy- classes (ulama and imam) may conduct ceremonies) 31

32 Beliefs: The of Islam The Five Pillars Jihad: ( )- 32

33 The Family o Extended families o - men were allowed to have more than one wife o Women- treated differently depending on the region Islam says that Allowed to inherit property Manage a business Get divorced Over time there rights have weakened o asserted greater control Women lived in secluded sections of the house where called the haram- men could not enter o - became a custom in many areas Forced women to cover themselves in a dark veil with exception of the Not allowed to look directly into a o Women were expected to do all o Marriages were usually Beliefs and Islamic Law and Government: Sharia o Governs all aspects of life o Based on the teachings of the o o Regulates moral conducts, family life, business practices and government decisions o Punishment is similar to the Code of Hammurabi (Eye for an Eye) Government o Traditionally ruled by a or o Territory subdivided into regions called caliphates Rulers were called a Division of Islam: : any proper Muslim could become a caliph o of Muslims today : only descendents of Muhammad could become caliph o is the only modern nation where Shiites rule 33

34 Comparing Concepts Topic: JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, & ISLAM Concept 1: Judaism Concept 2: Christianity Concept 3: Islam How are they alike? How are they different? Concept 1: Judaism Concept 2 Christianity Concept 3: Islam 34

35 Confucianism Current Population: million Location: Majority of believers are Chinese Origins: Developed by ( BC) Developed during the era of the Zhou Dynasty o made in response to the turmoil of the time Considered an system, not a religion Formed principles of that became the foundation for social order in Chinese Beliefs: : the good of the and came before the good of the The : restore order & must govern society Ruler to Father to Older Brother to Husband to Friend to Human nature is essentially There should be respect for and There should be ordered society. Do what is expected., and temperance are necessary. Ruler has the responsibility to rule for the Ruler should choose the most and able of social classes to serve as officials. The mandarins became the highest social class o Problem: o Problem: Holy Book: The o collection of recorded by his students Places of Worship:. Members are required to conduct to honor their Religious Leaders: - viewed as an ethical system 35

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37 Study the relationship between the first set of words. Pick one word from the word bank that completes the second pair with this same relationship. Theology reincarnation India atheism Sutras karma Siddhartha disciple martyr Polytheism Confucianism Example: belief in one god : monotheism :: belief in many gods : polytheism 1. the study of humans and their cultures : anthropology :: the study of religion : 2. belief in one god : monotheism :: belief that there is no god : 3. the essential nature of the universe : dharma :: the belief that a person's actions, good or bad, determine their destiny : 4. person who betrayed another : traitor :: person who died for a religious cause : 5. god : deity :: follower : 6. redemption : salvation :: rebirth of a soul into a new body : 7. Taoism : China :: Hinduism : 8. Christianity : Bible :: Buddhism : 9. Muhammad : Islam :: Buddhism : 10. Torah : Judaism :: Analects : 37

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