A brief overview. WORLD RELIGIONS / ETHICAL SYSTEMS

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1 A brief overview. WORLD RELIGIONS / ETHICAL SYSTEMS

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTION How have belief systems impacted the development of cultures and historical events?

3 WORLD RELIGIONS Purposes - Religion is a concept man uses to: Explain the Unknown How the world was created? What happens after you die? Provide moral guidelines or laws to live by Types of Belief Systems Polytheistic Belief in MORE THAN ONE god or divine being Monotheistic Belief in ONE god.

4 WORLD RELIGIONS / ETHICAL SYSTEMS Judaism Christianity Islam Hindu Buddhism Confucianism

5 JUDAISM Characteristics Founder: Abraham Monotheistic Holy Book: Torah Diaspora: the dispersion of the Jewish people out of their holy land (Israel) in the 6 th century AD Law: The Ten Commandments (given by God to Moses) Holy City: Jerusalem Symbol: Star of David

6 JUDAISM Characteristics, cont House of Worship: Temple Most Important Temple: Solomon s Temple: Destroyed by the Romans (Titus to be exact) all that remains is the Waling Wall The Muslim Dome of the Rock sits on the remains of the Temple The chosen people of God Still waiting for their Messiah

7 THE WAILING WALL

8 THE TORAH

9 THE IMPACT OF JUDAISM THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

10 CHRISTIANITY Characteristics Grew out of the Jewish tradition Founded by Jesus the Christ (the Christian Messiah and son of God) who was crucified for the sins of man by the Romans Spread by the Apostle Paul throughout the Roman Empire Three main groups: Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant Catholic Church is led by the Pope Saint Peter was the first Symbols: Cross and crucifix

11 CHRISTIANITY Characteristics, cont Holy Book: Bible (Old and New Testaments) Houses of Worship: Cathedrals and churches Christians believe in salvation through faith those who believe that Christ was the Messiah who died for the sins of man get to go to heaven Monotheistic Holy City: Jerusalem Currently the largest religion the world Waiting for the return of their Messiah

12 MILAN CATHEDRAL

13 THE IMPACT OF CHRISTIANITY AS A WORLD RELIGION

14 ISLAM Characteristics Founded by Muhammad (the last and greatest prophet) Monotheistic Holy Book: Koran (Qur an) Holy Cities: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem Main Groups: Shiite and Sunni Symbol: Crescent Moon and Star

15 ISLAM Characteristics, cont Law: Five Pillars of Islam Profession of faith, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca, giving of alms, prayer 5x day Holy Wars: Jihad (those who die in jihad are guaranteed immediate entry into heaven) House of Worship: Mosque Most important Mosque: Dome of the Rock (sitting on the remains of the Jewish temple) The Islamic Empire covered the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, the Persian Empire, and Spain Most of the Turks converted to Islam

16 THE DOME OF THE ROCK

17 DOME OF THE ROCK & THE WAILING WALL

18 THE IMPACT OF ISLAM THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

19 HINDU Characteristics Social System: Caste System You are born into a caste based upon your actions in your pervious life (karma) and cannot leave that caste in this life Reincarnation (rebirth) is based upon your karma if you perform your duties well in this life, you get a higher caste in the next life. If you do your duties poorly in this life, you are punished with a lower caste in the next life. Untouchables or outcastes are outside of Hindu society

20 HINDU Characteristics, cont Semi-polytheistic, semi-monotheistic (many gods but one main god) Ethnic religion of the Indian people Almost completely confined to the Indian subcontinent Holy Books: the Vedas (collections of prayers and verses about creation and reverence for nature) and Upanishads (discussions about the soul and proper ways of behavior.

21 HINDU Beliefs: Polytheistic Brahma is the Supreme Being in the Hindu religion. Hindus believe in millions of different gods that are considered manifestations of the one god Brahma. There are three main gods that control the cycle of life. Brahma the creator Vishnu the preserver of life Shiva the destroyer

22 DISCUSSION QUESTION How can Hinduism be considered polytheistic if they believe there is one Supreme Being?

23 HOW DOES THE CASTE SYSTEM PROVIDE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORDER?

24 HINDU TEMPLE

25 THE IMPACT OF HINDUISM AS A WORLD RELIGION

26 BUDDHISM Characteristics Founder: Siddhartha Guatama (otherwise known as the Buddha) who achieved enlightenment about the nature of humanity Grew out of Hinduism Law: Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path (by following these you reach Nirvana or the end of suffering and pain) Spread by King Ashoka to China and the rest of Asia

27 BUDDHISM Characteristics, cont Significant Writings Tripitka, or the Three Baskets of Wisdom. Places of Worship - Buddhism may be practice individually, but temples and monasteries known as Pagodas can be used for worship. Significant Religious People - The Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan sect of Buddhism. Buddhist monks can be identified by their traditional orange robes.

28 BUDDHISM Four Noble Truths - Siddhartha's philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by these four statements: Life is full of pain and suffering. Human desire causes this suffering. By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering. Humans can end desire by following the Eight-fold Path.

29 BUDDHISM The Eightfold Path - Gautama s guidelines on how to achieve Nirvana 1. Right Views 2. Right Aspirations 3. Right Speech 4. Right Conduct 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Contemplation

30 BUDDHA

31 DISCUSSION QUESTION Do you think that human suffering is connected to worldly desires? Why or Why not?

32 THE MIDDLE WAY OF COMPASSION

33 THE IMPACT OF BUDDHISM AS A WORLD RELIGION

34 CONFUCIANISM Characteristics More a system of thought than a religion Focuses on social responsibilities Superiors owe their inferiors kindness while inferiors owe their superiors respect and obedience Focused on filial piety: respect for elders (especially within a family) Founder: Confucius Significant Writings: The Analects Almost completely confined to China

35 CONFUCIANISM Characteristics, cont Five Relationships Confucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five Relationships Ruler to subject. Father to son. Older brother to younger brother. Husband to wife. Friend to friend.

36 DISCUSSION QUESTION Do the five relationships apply to our society today? If so, which one? Which relationships do not apply to today?

37 CONFUCIANIST TEMPLE

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