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1 India s Religions

2 Why we re covering this As the world became more united under the imperialist movement, interactions between cultures caused an increasing number of internal and social clashes The primary triggers that caused these clashes are similar to the ones that still occur today: economic power, race, and religion We ve already discussed most of the western religions of the world (religions that began in Europe or Western Asian) such as Judaism, Islam, and the many Christian sects. We now need to discuss eastern religions, two of the major ones being Hinduism and Buddhism

3 Hinduism Hinduism has been around since maybe 1500 BC, although the official beginning of the religion is unknown Hinduism goes beyond religion. It s a way of life Hinduism s scriptures are recorded in the Vedas, which contain the truths revealed to wise men throughout the years. Hinduism has millions of gods, but their three main gods are Brahma the creator Vishnu the preserver Siva the destroyer

4 Hinduism Hindus believe the cause of human suffering comes from personal pleasure Lives are tied together in a Samsara, a cycle of birth and rebirth (reincarnation) With each samsara, your soul is reborn in a new form (dog, snake, flower, etc) The soul desperately wants to escape from this samsara, a glorious moment for a soul called Moksha.

5 Hinduism What controls whether or not moksha is achieved? Everyone is born with a Dharma, or a duty. This dharma is based on a person s caste. Each caste has a specific role or Dharma. A person must do their part to fulfill their Dharma. Brahmans: Priests, at the top of society Kshatriyas: Warriors and Kings Vaisyas: Commoners, merchants Sudras: Peasants, artisans Untouchables: Garbage dwellers

6 Hinduism It is ALWAYS wrong to do something other than your Dharma. No matter the circumstances. When you achieve or fail your dharma, your soul receives or loses karma. After your death, your soul s karma is measured. If you ve achieved enough karma in your life, you will be reincarnated into a higher class This is why you revere upper classes and don t help lower ones. They put themselves there and their soul must be respected for it or must learn from it.

7 Buddhism Buddhism began with a Hindu man named Siddhartha Gautama. Gautama was married and had a son, but grew up so wealthy that his family members sheltered him from disease and suffering According to Buddhist teachings, one day Gautama went outside the palace walls and found an old man, a dead man and a beggar He realized for the first time life was full of misery, suffering and death

8 Buddhism Gautama left his family and set out to find the cause of human suffering After 6 years of searching, he was meditating under a tree, frustrated at his lack of progress. Suddenly he realized the cause of human suffering and the cure for it. His soul instantly achieved enlightenment He became known as Buddha, the Enlightened One

9 Buddhism What Buddha realized under that tree, he called the Four Noble Truths: Suffering is universal The cause of suffering is desire To end suffering, you must crush desire and achieve Nirvana How to accomplish this is to follow the Noble Eightfold Path, which is a guide to proper conduct Buddhism believes you must seek nirvana on your own and follow the eightfold path Nirvana is the Buddhist form of moksha, when you break the cycle of life and death and become, literally, part of the universe

10 Buddhism The Eightfold Path The Path of Wisdom 1. Right view 2. Right intention The Path of Ethical conduct 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood The Path of Mental discipline 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration

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