3 Hunting-Gathering Definition: The activity of gathering or hunting food. Explanation: This is how they started to get food before the Agricultural Revolution
4 Sedentary vs. Nomadic Definition: Nomadic is when you follow your food and not live at certain area for a long time, sedentary is the exact opposite Explanation: Change from nomadic to sedentary will lead to agriculture
5 Five Signs of Civilization Definition: Advanced cities, Specialized workers, Complex institutions, Record keeping, Advanced Technologies. Explanation: All countries today have all the above criteria so we have a lot of civilizations. These are present in our river valley civilizations.
6 Advent of agriculture Definition: the practice of farming Explanation: To have a sedentary living / not needing to follow food
7 Cave Art Definition: Simple art drawn on cave art with primitive paints painted with primitive technique. Explanation: It s the only way we can interpret their daily lives.
8 Size of Communities Definition: The number of people living in an area. Explanation: After the Agricultural Revolution, community. Sizes increased drastically.
9 Prehistory Definition: The time of history before written records Significance: It offers insight on how people came to be (have to use sources like cave art because there are no written records)
10 Part 2: River Valleys
11 Pictographs Definition- a writing system which uses a series of pictures/drawings for communication Significance- this is one of earliest forms of written language. It was used and developed by all of the river valleys. An example of a pictograph would be hieroglyphics.
12 Fertile Crescent Definition: An area of fertile land in the middle east,extending around the tigris and euphrates rivers Significance: It saw development of the earliest human civilizations because of its water supply and agricultural resources available
13 Hammurabi s Code Definition: (also known as the Epic of Gilgamesh) is an early law code for Babylon, Mesopotamia; its goal was to provide fair justice to all people; an eye for an eye Significance: Although this law code was supposed to create justice for all, in reality it didn t. Depending on the class you were in, your punishment varied, Later on the Hittites adopted this law code in their own laws. Code on Clay Tablet
14 Irrigation Definition:Supplying any dry land with water Significance:It was important because it allowed the to grow crops and have aligartural land
15 Mandate of Heaven Definition: the idea that if the ruler was just, then the Gods would bless him and allow him to keep ruling, but he will be overthrown if he is unjust Significance: This system was used to keep only good rulers in power, if the ruler wasn t good, he loses his right to rule, and a new noble family will come in power.
16 Polytheism vs. Monotheism Definition:polytheism has many gods and monotheism has only one god. Significance: It matters because people who were polytheistic practiced it and people who were monotheistic practiced that. Each knew how many gods/goddesses to worship.
17 Theocracy Definition- a form of government where a god or deity rules as a supreme ruler. (Religion is mixed with politics) Significance- the is the form of government that is only used in the Nile River valley in all of the river valleys
18 Places of Worship Definition:Any building or area where people gather for prayers and worship their god(s) Significance: For example Mesopotamia people worshiped in ziggurats. It matters because they practiced their religion and go there to worship or ask their god(s) for forgiveness
19 Part 3: People of the Mediterranean and the Middle East
20 Covenant Definition- A promise made by Abraham and Yahweh. Significance- The covenant was if Abraham worshipped Yahweh then Yahweh would protect him and his people.
21 Moses Definition- former egyptian prince who later became a hebrew lawgiver Significance- led the rest of the hebrews out of enslavement.
22 Murex Definition- The snail used by the Phoenicians to create their purple dye. Significance- It was used for trading and it was used in clothes. It was expensive so purple clothing represented royalty.
23 Royal Road Definition- Ancient highway built by Darius the Great Significance- Was used for trade by the Persians and a faster route through the Middle East.
24 Imperial Bureaucracy Definition- is a government administration constituted to carry out imperial policies in all regions of the empire. Significant- set the stage of the Han dynasty
25 Ten Commandments Definition- A set of laws for the hebrews. Significance- It was the set of laws Moses received from Yahweh.
26 Nebuchadnezzar Definition- Was a Chaldean king of the Neo- Babylonian Empire. Significance- He defeated the Assyrians with the help of Medes.
27 Part 4: Classical India and China
28 Hinduism Definition: A major religion and cultural tradition of India that is continually used in India to this day. Their goal was to achieve Moksha through release from Samsara, the cycle of reincarnation. Significance: 80% of India s population still practices this religion to this day and this religion has shaped this world and created the path for Buddhism to develop, as some of its concepts are similar to Hinduism.
29 Buddhism Definition: Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in India. They practiced the 4 Noble Truths and the Eightfold path and their goal was to end suffering and desire in their lives. Significance: Buddhism is significant because its teachings of ending suffering and desires in your life by achieving Nirvana influenced its continued use today in SE Asia, China and Japan.
30 Legalism v. Confucianism Definition: Legalism: A Chinese philosophy founded by Han Fei-tzu, which spoke of the need to strict laws and harsh punishments needed to protect society from people, who were inherently bad. Confucianism: A Chinese philosophy founded by Confucius, which spoke of how people were good at heart and how relationships create order, reducing the need for strong rules. Significance: Legalism: Was used during the Qin dynasty to impose a strict society under an autocracy implemented by their paranoid leader, Shi Huangdi. Confucianism: Used during the Han dynasty to implement a golden age in classical China and to create a kinder more prosperous society.
31 Aryans Definition: Taller, lighter skinned people, who spoke a different language than other native Indians. Significance: Aryans crossed the Hindu Kush and migrate into India, they came as India was dying. They dominated the people already living in India by installing a caste system that placed them in the highest classes and the native Indians in the lowest classes.
32 Caste System Definition: Division of classes in India. This system was installed by the Aryans, and its purpose was to divide people into classes. Significance: The caste system determined your job, who you marry, and your karma. The Aryans established the top two classes is where they belong, and the bottom three classes were native Indians
33 Civil Service Exam Definition: An examination during the Han dynasty which determines the kind of government job you were able to work as well as your overall understanding of the teachings of Confucianism. Significance: Civil Service Exams were significant during the Han Dynasty because it determined whether you could serve in the government or not, along with what position you could potentially receive.
34 Ashoka (Asoka) Definition: Ashoka was an ancient Indian Emperor of the Maurya dynasty who ruled almost the whole Indian subcontinent. Significance: He was significant because he spread Buddhism by missionaries and was the first to promote religious tolerance and opened free hotels and hospitals, along with building roads.
35 Part 5: Greece
36 Term: phalanx Definition- Military formation used by greece in both persian and peloponnesian war Significance- If not for this they may have lost the Persian war
37 Term: Pericles Definition: Leader of Greece during Golden Age Significance: Led Athens into its prime years
38 Term: The Iliad and The Odyssey Definition: The epics Homer wrote talking about Odysseus journey back home Significance: The best epics that Homer wrote
39 Term: Battle of thermopylae Definition- battle during the persian war where it was 300 spartans vs. multiple thousands persians Significance- all 300 spartans died, but persia had more casualties
40 Term: Direct Democracy Definition: People vote for the leader they want to elect Significance: Athens used this type of Government which many countries later adopted
41 Term: Delian League Definition: The league that Athens formed after the Persian war Significance: This united all the greek city-states as one
42 Part 6: Miscellaneous
43 Darius the great Definition: 3rd king of the persian empire, ruled at its peak. Father of Xerxes I. Significance: He conquered the city state Ionia and that forced Greece to revolt which caused the Persian wars
44 Peloponnesian League
45 Hanging Gardens Definition:An ascending series of tiered containing tree, shrubs, and vines. Located in Babylon. Made by Nebuchadnezzar Significance: To make his wife fell at home
46 Rosetta Stone
47 Purple Dye Definition: made with rare murex snails only found in phoenicia Significance: phoenicians traded the dye (was one of their main sources of money)
49 Abraham Definition: Abraham is the first person to reject polytheism and believed in one God (yahweh) Significance: Made a covenant with Yahweh saying that Yahweh would protect Jewish people only if Abraham would obey Yahweh.
50 Euclid Definition: One of the most prominent mathematics, also wrote elements. Significance: He wrote the elements
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