Name. The Crusades. Aim #1: What were the Crusades?

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1 Name The Crusades Aim #1: What were the Crusades? The Crusades were a series of wars starting in 1095 CE that lasted into the end of the 13th century (1200s) in which European Christians tried to win control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Direction: Read the following text and answer questions below. On a late November morning in the year 1095, Pope Urban II, delivered a sermon that would transform the history of Europe. His rousing words transfixed the crowd gathered here in the French town of Clermont and in the months that followed his message reverberating across the West. The Age of the Crusades had begun. The Pope proclaimed a new holy war against Islam for control of the most hallowed site in the Christian cosmos, the sacred city of Jerusalem. Urban's call to arms initiated a struggle that would rage for two centuries one that fires the imagination and fuels debate even today. The story of the Crusades is remembered as a tale of religious fanaticism and unspeakable violence of medieval knights and jihadi warriors, of castles and kings, heroism, betrayal, and sacrifice. Now, fresh research eyewitness testimony and contemporary evidence from both the Christian and Islamic world's shed new light on how it was that these two great religions waged war in the name of God, why hundreds of thousands of Christians and Muslims answered the call to Crusade, and who ultimately won the war for the Holy Land. From the summer of 1096, between 60,000 and 100,000 Christians men, women, and children set out to walk some two and a half thousand miles across the face of the known world. Their goal was Jerusalem. Not since the distant glories of Ancient Rome had a force of this size been assembled. Rich and poor, peasants and knights, these were the first Crusaders. They were Christian soldiers who endured unimaginable suffering and privation during an armed pilgrimage that lasted for three years. Questions: 1. Who made a speech that started the First Crusade? 2. What was the goal of the First Crusade? 3. About how many Crusaders took part in the Crusades? 4. How long did a Crusade usually take?

2 Aim #2: What and where is the Holy Land? The Holy Land is a region of the Middle East that includes modern-day Israel-Palestine, western Jordan, and parts of southern Lebanon and southwestern Syria. This area is called the Holy Land because events important to followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam took place here. Jerusalem is the most important city in the Holy Land. Today, because of its importance for each of the religions, the city is divided into four quarters: the Jewish Quarter, the Muslim Quarter, the Christian Quarter, and the Armenian Quarter. Armenians are a Christian group originally from Western Asia. The Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Quarters contain holy sites that are sacred to their faiths. What would be the positive effects of living in a city of diverse belief systems? What would be the negative effects of living in a city of diverse belief systems? Historic and Geographic Context: Who controlled the Holy Land? When? Directions: 1. On each map, identify and circle the Holy Land. 2. The histories of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all related to the Holy Land. Complete the questions to see when each of those faiths controlled the area and how political control of the Holy Land changed leading up to the First Crusade in 1095 CE.

3 The Kingdom of Judah According to the Hebrew Bible, which is disputed by historians, the Kingdom of Judah ruled Jerusalem and the area around it in 830 BCE. According to the Hebrew Bible, the people in this kingdom were Jewish. They practiced monotheism and worshiped the god that modern followers of Judaism worship. 1. Which states were in control of the Holy Land at this time? 2. Based on the text above and map to the left, what belief system was endorsed by the state that ruled Jerusalem in 830 BCE? Roman Control of the Holy Land The map below shows the Roman Empire at its greatest extent. The empire s land in the Middle East included the Holy Land, at the time known as the Province of Judea. For most of the Roman Empire s existence, the emperors were polytheistic and enforced the worship of their gods throughout the areas they ruled. The Jewish people who lived in Judea refused to worship Roman gods because they were monotheistic. This tension and disagreements over taxation led to series of wars that resulted in the destruction of the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE and forced Jewish people to leave the Holy Land and other parts of the Roman Empire for fear of persecution. Afterwards, the province was known as Palestine, not Judea. After the death of Jesus of Nazareth, Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire. Like Jewish people, Christians were persecuted by the Romans, but over the course of hundreds of years its popularity overcame the persecution and the empire adopted Christianity as the only authorized religion in 380 CE. 1. Based on the text and map, what belief system was endorsed by the state that ruled the Holy Land during this time? 2. What changed in the Holy Land after the Kingdom of Judah? How might this have affected relationships between Jewish people and Christians?

4 Byzantine Control of the Holy Land After the Western and Eastern halves of the Roman Empire were split in 285 CE, the eastern half became known as the Byzantine Empire. This map shows the Byzantine Empire at its height 550 CE, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Byzantines were Christian, but in 1054 they split from the Roman Catholic Church to create the Eastern Orthodox Church which does not recognize the Pope as the leader of the religion. Most Christians in Eastern Europe are still a part of the Eastern Orthodox Church today. 1. Based on the text and map, what belief system was endorsed by the state that ruled the Holy Land during this time? 2. What changed in the Holy Land since the Roman Empire? How might this have affected relationships between Jewish people, Roman Catholic Christians, and Eastern Orthodox Christians? Rise of Islam and the Islamic Caliphates First under the leadership of Muhammad, the founder of Islam and later by other Caliphs that led the Islamic community, the region under Muslim rule grew from modern-day Saudi Arabia to include all of North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain), and southwestern Asia. The Byzantine Empire lost control of much of the Middle East include the Holy Land which was surrendered to the Rashidun Caliphate in 637 CE after a six-month siege of Jerusalem. Though ruled by different groups of Muslims, the Holy Land was in Islamic control until the First Crusade. The Muslims allowed Jewish people to live in and practice their religion in Jerusalem after being persecuted by the Byzantines. 1. Based on the text and map, what was belief system was endorsed by the state that ruled the Holy Land in 750 CE? 2. What changed in the Holy Land since the Byzantine Empire? How might this have affected relationships between Jewish people, Roman Catholic Christians, Eastern Orthodox Christians, and Muslims?

5 Invasion and Dominance of the Seljuk Turks and Conflict in the Muslim World The Seljuk Turks were a group of nomadic warriors from western Asia who converted to Islam. They were part of the Sunni sect. They conquered Persia (modern-day Iran) and expanded their empire to include most of modern-day Turkey, and the Holy Land by 1071 CE. By the start of the First Crusade in 1095, the Seljuk Empire was no longer unified. The empire was divided and the rulers of each section were concerned with consolidating their own power. In addition, another Islamic caliphate called the Fatimid Caliphate that was based in Egypt had taken control of Jerusalem by The Fatimid Caliphate rose to power in Egypt in the early 900s. They gained power and territory by defeating the weakening Abbasid Caliphate whose capital was in Baghdad. The Abbasids, who ruled Egypt before the Fatimids were Sunni Muslims like the Turks, while the Fatimids were from the Shi a sect. Though the Fatimids took the Holy Land in 1092, their power was weakening in the region. 1. Based on the text and map, what was belief system was endorsed by the state that ruled the Holy Land in 1092 CE? 2. What changed in the Holy Land since the Rise of Islam? How might this have affected relationships between Jewish people, Roman Catholic Christians, Eastern Orthodox Christians, and Muslims? Reflection 1. How might the changes in control of the Holy Land lead to dispute over who it belongs to?

6 Aim #3 How were people motivated to fight in the Crusades? Source #1 Your brethren (other Christians) who live in the east are in urgent need of your help and you must hasten (hurry) to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches If you permit them to continue the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech (beg) you to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends Christ commands it! - Pope Urban speaking to a Council of Christian Bishops Why Did People Go on the Crusades? Part I Source #1 Questions and answers: 1) What did Pope Urban say was happening to Christians and their churches in the east (the Holy Land )? 2) What kinds of people did Pope Urban think should go to the aid of Christians? 3) Pope Urban speaks about a vile race (mean or repulsive). Which group of people is he talking about and why do you think he called them that? 4) According to this source, what was the reason for going on the Crusades? Source #2 All who die on the way (going to the Holy Land), whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans shall have immediate remission (forgiveness) of sins. Oh what a disgrace if such a despised race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of God and is made glorious with the name of Christ! - Pope Urban speaking to a council of Christian Bishops Source #2 Questions and answers: 1) What did Pope Urban promise those who joined the Crusades? 2) Do you think this would have persuaded people to go? Why?

7 3) Why did Pope Urban think Christians should win? Source #3 Oh, race of Franks (French people) this land you inhabit, shut in on all sides by the seas and surrounded by the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your large population; nor does it abound in wealth; and it doesn t furnish (provide) enough food for its cultivators [farmers]. This is why you murder one another. The land which as the Scripture says floweth with milk and honey, and Jerusalem where the land is fruitful above others, was given by God (to Christians) - Pope Urban speaking to Franks (French people) Source #3 Questions and answers: 1) Why did Pope Urban think the Franks murdered each other? 2) What is Pope Urban s solution for the Franks to stop murdering each other? Do you think this is a good solution? Why or why not. 3) According to this source, why would people go on the Crusades? Source #4 - On the Fourth Crusade the Christians never made it to the Hold Land. They did, however, attack and conquer Constantinople which was a Christian city on the way to Jerusalem. There was so much treasure heaped up in Constantinople, so many precious gold and silver vessels, cloth of gold and rich jewels, that it was a wonder to behold. Never since the beginning of the world has such wealth been won. - Account of Robert of Clari, a French knight who witnessed the looting of Constantinople. Source #4 Question and answer: 1) According to this source, what might have been another reason to go on the Crusades?

8 Aim #4 How does perspective shape what happened when Crusaders entered Jerusalem during the first Crusade? Journey to Jerusalem 1095 Emperor Alexis I of the Byzantine Empire contacts about the Muslim control of Jerusalem and its impending threat to Constantinople Pope Urban II called for a crusade against the Large numbers of nobles, peasants and knights responded to the call and set out for Constantinople Knowing the Crusaders were coming, the Turks expelled all and out of Jerusalem Crusaders arrive and took the city but this would not be the end of the fighting Differing Perspectives Christians believed they were fighting in the name of Jesus to take back the place of his birth from infidels Muslims believed they were defending land that was theirs and that they rightfully conquered Historical Sourcing & Corroboration Historians create historical accounts by comparing multiple documents and perspectives of different people. Focusing on perspective helps to evaluate the reliability of a document. When evaluating perspective ask yourself: Who wrote this document? What type of document is it? Why was this document written? How does this document make me feel about the topic? How does perspective shape what happened when Crusaders entered Jerusalem during the first Crusade? Directions: Read documents A & B with your group Underline or highlight that indicate the perspective of the document Identify the perspective of each document below and corroborate the two sources Perspective of Document A: Perspective of Document B: How do you know? How do you know?

9 Corroboration: Identify1-2 similarities and differences in these accounts Similarities 1. Differences Document C Read document C While you are reading, underline or highlight that indicate the perspective of the document Explain your choice using 2-3 specific examples from the documents in your explanation Which document is C more similar to? (circle) Document A Document B I think Document C is from a Muslim/Christian (circle) perspective because..

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13 Aim #5 Did the Crusades leave a more positive or more negative impact on the world? Do Now: The End of the Crusades By the year 1291, the Crusades were over and after about 200 years of fighting and the Arabs maintained control of the land that had been fought over for so long. Task: Below is a list of results from the Crusades. Categorize each it as either positive (+), or negative (-). Positive or Negative Result 1) There was more trade between Europe and the Middle East. 2) Europeans got new foods such as rice, coffee, and spices. 3) Europeans got goods such as mirrors and wheelbarrows. 4) Muslims got wool from Europe. 5) Europeans learned about algebra, chemistry, and a new number system. 6) European sailors started using the Arabic compass and astrolabe to find better sea routes. 7) Cities in Italy became important trading centers between Europe and the Middle East. 8) Feudal lords allowed serfs to buy their freedom. Then they used the money to pay for the Crusades. 9) Because serfs gained freedom and because they could not get jobs in growing cities, the Crusades helped to bring an end to feudalism in Europe. 10) The Crusades helped create distrust between Christians and Muslims that still exists today. 11) Many people died during the Crusades 12) At the end of the Crusades Jerusalem was still in Muslim hands. Activity: Developing a Deeper Understanding: Impact of the Crusades Initial Claim: I think the Crusades had a more (positive/negative) effect. Directions: Using the documents, analyze the impacts the Crusades has on World History Document 1 1. Why did the crusades leave a bitter legacy?

14 Document 2 2. How did the crusades contribute to cultural diffusion? Document 3 4. What was one positive outcome of the crusades on Europe? 5. What was one positive outcome of the crusades on the Muslim civilization? Document 4 6. How did the fighting during the crusades impact the people in Jerusalem? Document 5 7. How were the Jewish people treated during the Crusades? 1. What was a final outcome of the Crusades? 1. The Seljuk Turks conquered Spain. 2. Jerusalem remained under the control of Muslims. 3. Charlemagne established the Frankish Empire. 4. The pope became the leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Regents Multiple-Choice 2. One long-term effect of the Crusades was the 1. development of Pax Mongolia 2. fall of the Ming dynasty 3. control of Jerusalem by Europeans growth of trade and towns in western Europe

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