Society, Religion and Arts

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Society, Religion and Arts"

Transcription

1 Society, Religion and Arts

2 Despite the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Empire continued to thrive in Constantinople. It would endure for nearly 1,000 years after the Fall of Rome, largely due to the reign of Emperor Justinian ( C.E.). This period has been called Byzantine. The Easter Roman Empire is more commonly known as Byzantium. Justinian and his wife, Theodora, had a peasant background. Theodora was a high-class dancer and prostitute who married well and became the most powerful woman in Byzantine history. Together, they rose in power following the ascension of Justin I ( C.E.), the uncle of Justinian. Justin rose in military significance in Byzantium and usurped the throne in 518 C.E. Justinian was appointed Emperor after the death of his Uncle. Justinian conducted a military campaign in North Africa in 533 C.E. and managed to capture the coastal Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt. Once he consolidated his power, Justinian sent missionaries to Russia and China to spread the Christian faith. Religious conformity was strictly enforced. Byzantine subjects must be Christian. The Patriarch of Constantinople was held under Justinian s power. When Justinian died in 565 B.C.E., the European and North African holdings were conquered by Germanic or Islamic peoples. The Bishop of Rome had the opportunity to develop his own religious and political power since Italy remained broken up into smaller Christian kingdoms. Byzantium contributed innovative architectural designs and mosaics. Like Islam, Byzantine aesthetics are distinct and easily identifiable. Western artists would be influenced by their haloed saints and their extravagant use of golden backgrounds in religious imagery.

3 HAGIA SOPHIA IN ISTANBUL, TURKEY C.E. The Church of Holy Wisdom Hagia Sophia was commissioned by Emperor Justinian around 532 C.E. Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus worked together to construct this one of a kind design. Unlike Roman basilicas, this is a square building with a central dome and two side half domes. Its 112 ft diameter central dome rises 184 feet from the ground. Natural light pours from the dome s windows into the center of the structure. Marble in numerous colors covers the walls and pillars throughout. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks converted it into a mosque. It was made a Turkish museum by Kemal Ataturk the first president of modern Turkey in 1935.

4 THE CHURCH OF SAN VITALE IN RAVENNA, ITALY C.E. San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy is an octagonal domed church. The entrance is through an oval shaped hall adjacent to the octagon. Christ seated on the Earth is above the Apse where the altar is below. Two mosaics of Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora are positioned on each side below.

5 Byzantine mosaics were a new art form in the Eastern Roman Empire. They required countless hours of cutting colored stones and placing them strategically to create some of the most beautiful scenes in the Roman world. As an art form, mosaics offer an otherworldliness that is difficult to describe. Mosaics lack representational clarity, but their ability to honor and glorify their subjects outweighs their technical limitations.

6

7 St. Mark s Basilica in Venice, Italy C.E. claims to be the site of burial for St. Mark, the writer of the Gospel of Mark. It has Byzantine influences with its countless golden mosaics and central dome over the Greek cross shaped floor plan. This is a treasure of the Eastern Roman period. Venice and Constantinople were trade partners since they were two major ports that tied Europe to Asia. Its natural lighting shining through the golden ceiling and walls is ethereal.

8 In the 8 th century C.E. the Roman and Byzantine Christians entered into a debate over the nature of icons in worship. Eastern Byzantine Christians were less favorable toward them since they would be potentially seen as idols. Western Roman Christians saw them as teaching tools to help those who were unable to read. In 717 C.E., Byzantine Emperor Leo III ordered the cessation of icons since it broke the Hebrew commandment against images. The fear was that people could not differentiate the reverence for the persons portrayed in the images and would worship the images themselves. This first wave of iconoclasm lasted for nearly two centuries. It pitted the Byzantine emperors against the Patriarch of Constantinople and Byzantine priests. Emperor Constantine V held an Ecumenical Council at Hieria in 754 C.E. which upheld the iconoclasm of his father Leo III. In response to the Council of Hieria, the Western Roman churches conducted the Second Council of Nicea in 787 C.E. to address the role of icons in worship. It affirmed the artistic depiction of saints and of Christ in order to enhance Christian worship. During the ninth and tenth centuries, the two halves of the Christian world grew increasingly separate. Byzantine Christians renounced their iconoclasm in the 10 th century, but other issues emerged due to differences in theological and practical expressions of the two sides. The Patriarch of Constantinople and the Bishop of Rome had a hard time sharing influence. The two forms of Christianity were shaped by their European and Asian contexts. Russia was converted to Byzantine Christianity through missionaries sent by Emperor Basil II ( C.E.). In 1054 C.E., the two sides made mutual declarations to separate. Afterward, two Christian churches were recognized in the world for the first time. Previously other expressions were considered heretical and denounced as false faith. Catholicism grew from this split in the Western European countries. Eastern Orthodoxy expanded in Eastern Europe and Russia.

9 Islam s emergence in the 7 th century C.E. posed a threat to Byzantine Christianity. Within its first 100 years, Islam spread throughout Persia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt. The Byzantine Empire accepted its losses and maintained holdings in Western Turkey, Greece and southern Italy. Byzantium adopted Greek as its official language and a rebirth of Greek learning occurred after centuries of Christian growth. After the Great Schism, the Byzantine Empire had to call upon its newly rival Christian communities in the West to aid against the Muslim advances in Turkey. In 1095 C.E., the Byzantine Emperor asked Rome for help and one year later the First Crusade commenced. This initial one year journey of Europeans into the Near East opened up 200 years of military expeditions. 1. First 1096 C.E. Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem established 2. Second 1144 C.E. intended to help Edessa in Syria, but it failed 3. Third 1187 C.E. Richard the Lionhearted fought against Saladin of the Seljuk Turks, Acre captured 4. Fourth 1202 C.E. Constantinople conquered, Count Baldwin of Flanders crowned as Latin king 5. Children s Crusade 1212 C.E. children marched from France to Italy, most were kidnapped 6. Fifth C.E. crusade against Egypt 7. Sixth C.E. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II captured Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth 8. Seventh C.E. King Louis IX of France led and was captured in Egypt and later released 9. Eighth C.E. King Edward I of England participated with little success In 1204 C.E., the Western Christians raided Constantinople and setup a Latin kingdom. This facilitated four more crusades over the next seventy years. In 1261 C.E., a Byzantine ruler, Michael Palaeologus, conquered Constantinople and drove out the Western usurpers. The last Latin holdings were lost in 1291 C.E. For 192 years, Byzantine rulers held Constantinople until they were defeated in 1453 C.E. by the Ottoman Empire.

What happened to the Roman Empire by 500 A.D.?

What happened to the Roman Empire by 500 A.D.? What happened to the Roman Empire by 500 A.D.? After the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire entered an era of decline The Roman Empire had a series of weak emperors The Fall of the Roman Empire Romans had a

More information

The Byzantine Empire ( ) One God, One Empire, One Religion

The Byzantine Empire ( ) One God, One Empire, One Religion The Byzantine Empire (330-1453) One God, One Empire, One Religion The Eastern Empire As Western Europe succumbed to the Germanic invasions, imperial power shifted to the Byzantine Empire (the eastern part

More information

Chapter 10. Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations

Chapter 10. Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations Chapter 10 Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations Section 1 The Byzantine Empire Capital of Byzantine Empire Constantinople Protected by Greek Fire Constantinople Controlled by: Roman Empire Christians Byzantines

More information

Content Area 3: Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Byzantine

Content Area 3: Early Europe and Colonial Americas. Byzantine Content Area 3: Early Europe and Colonial Americas Byzantine Byzantium Eastern empire, Byzantium, prospered centered around the city of Constantinople. Iconoclasm in 8th and 9th centuries. Ottoman Turks

More information

World History I. Robert Taggart

World History I. Robert Taggart World History I Robert Taggart Table of Contents To the Student.............................................. v A Note About Dates........................................ vii Unit 1: The Earliest People

More information

Chapter 9. The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the rise of Eastern Europe

Chapter 9. The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the rise of Eastern Europe Chapter 9 The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and the rise of Eastern Europe The 2 nd Rome Map of the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Justinian Building and Defending the Empire Justinian- Ruled the Byzantine

More information

Byzantine Empire ( )

Byzantine Empire ( ) Byzantine Empire (330-1453) Definition Byzantine: this term is a modern invention. The Byzantines called themselves either Romans or Greeks. It was used for the medieval Greekspeaking, Christian empire

More information

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. The Empire in the East survived for another thousand years

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. The Empire in the East survived for another thousand years Constantine, the Roman Emperor who recognized Christianity as the legal religion, moved the capital to the Eastern Mediterranean (330 A.D.), rebuilt the city of Byzantium & later renamed it after himself.

More information

Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Chapter 14 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe OUTLINE I. Introduction Two civilizations survived in postclassical Europe: the Byzantine Empire and its culturally related cultures

More information

Middle Ages: The Reign of Religion. The Dark Ages-truly anything but dark!!

Middle Ages: The Reign of Religion. The Dark Ages-truly anything but dark!! Middle Ages: The Reign of Religion The Dark Ages-truly anything but dark!! What do we know about? Egypt, Greece, Rome Emperors Empires Religious practices People s focus Purpose of art Background of Roman

More information

Civilization in Eastern Europe. Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Civilization in Eastern Europe. Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Civilization in Eastern Europe Byzantium and Orthodox Europe The Grand Mosque in Makkah The Byzantine Empire One God, One Empire, One Religion Busy Byzantines The Byzantine Empire One God, One Empire,

More information

The Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire Preview This preview is designed to show students how the city of Constantinople thrived as a trading hub. This will help you understand why Constantinople became the capital of the

More information

BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D A.D.

BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D A.D. BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. BYZANTINE EMPIRE 500 A.D. 1500 A.D. Roman Empire 27 B.C. 476 A.D. Also

More information

Chapter 13. The Commonwealth of Byzantium. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

Chapter 13. The Commonwealth of Byzantium. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium 1 The Early Byzantine Empire n Capital: Byzantium n On the Bosporus n Commercial, strategic value of location n Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople),

More information

Justinian. Byzantine Emperor Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire Code of Justinian

Justinian. Byzantine Emperor Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire Code of Justinian Byzantine Empire Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium, a Greek city in the eastern part of the empire. Ruled over the Balkan Peninsula, the Middle East and parts of

More information

The Byzantine Empire and Emerging Europe. Chapter 8

The Byzantine Empire and Emerging Europe. Chapter 8 The Byzantine Empire and Emerging Europe Chapter 8 Section 2 Decline & Fall of Rome The Romans are no longer a world superpower so what the heck happened? 1. Military Problems 2. Economic Problems 3. Political

More information

UNIT 2 NEW EMPIRES EMERGE

UNIT 2 NEW EMPIRES EMERGE UNIT 2 NEW EMPIRES EMERGE SSWH4 The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 AD and 1500 AD. a. Analyze the importance of Justinian, include the influence of

More information

The Byzantine Empire and Russia ( )

The Byzantine Empire and Russia ( ) Chapter 10, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 10 The Byzantine Empire and Russia (330 1613) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,

More information

The Byzantines

The Byzantines The Byzantines 330-1453 Development of the Byzantine Empire Strengths of the Empire Split between East and West Preserving Roman Law Decline of the Empire Strengths of the Empire The Byzantine Empire

More information

The Byzantine Empire CHAPTER. 6.1 Introduction. 4 A modern drawing re-creates the city of Constantine during the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Empire CHAPTER. 6.1 Introduction. 4 A modern drawing re-creates the city of Constantine during the Byzantine Empire. 4 A modern drawing re-creates the city of Constantine during the Byzantine Empire. CHAPTER The Byzantine Empire 6.1 Introduction In the last chapter, you learned about the decline of feudalism in western

More information

The Crusades. Footsteps of Faith. Windstar Cruises Ross Arnold, Fall 2013

The Crusades. Footsteps of Faith. Windstar Cruises Ross Arnold, Fall 2013 The Crusades Footsteps of Faith Windstar Cruises Ross Arnold, Fall 2013 Footsteps of Faith: Lectures Footsteps of Faith: Introduction The Crusades Faith & Culture in the ANE Birthplace of Empires The Children

More information

AP World History Notes Chapter 10

AP World History Notes Chapter 10 AP World History Notes Chapter 10 395 CE = final division of Roman Empire into eastern and western halves 476 = end of the western Roman Empire Eastern half remained intact = the Byzantine Empire (aka

More information

Bellwork. Turn in your foldable if you did not on Friday

Bellwork. Turn in your foldable if you did not on Friday Bellwork Turn in your foldable if you did not on Friday The Byzantine Empire Constantinople THE TWO ROMAN EMPIRES Constantinople The Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire Eastern

More information

Part I: The Byzantine Empire - A Quick Overview

Part I: The Byzantine Empire - A Quick Overview Part I: The Byzantine Empire - A Quick Overview The Roman Empire Divided Constantine s City-- Constantinople The Byzantine Empire I. Origins of the Empire A. Started as eastern part of Roman Empire 1.

More information

Revival & Crusades AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( )

Revival & Crusades AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( ) Revival & Crusades AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) From the fall of the Roman Empire 476 C.E. to around 1000 C.E. Europe was in the Dark Ages or Medieval Times. Between 1000 1200 a revival

More information

The Worlds of European Christendom. Chapter 9

The Worlds of European Christendom. Chapter 9 The Worlds of European Christendom Chapter 9 After the Roman Empire By the 4 th Century the Roman Empire gets divided Christian Europe is two parts: 1. Eastern half = The Byzantine Empire 2. Western half

More information

Byzantines, Turks, and Russians Interact

Byzantines, Turks, and Russians Interact Byzantines, Turks, and Russians Interact 500-1500 Byzantium Germanic tribes had driven the Romans east. In 330 CE, the Roman emperor had begun to favor Christianity and established a city called Constantinople,

More information

Introduction to the Byzantine Empire

Introduction to the Byzantine Empire Introduction to the Byzantine Empire Do Now: What are the advantages of building a major city here? MAP Peninsula Advantages Provided natural safe harbors for ships both merchant and military ships Provided

More information

A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by:

A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by: A Pilgrim People The Story of Our Church Presented by: www.cainaweb.org Early Church Growth & Threats Patristic Period & Great Councils Rise of Christendom High Medieval Church Renaissance to Reformation

More information

CHRISTIANITY. text in purple for notes. Voorhees

CHRISTIANITY. text in purple for notes. Voorhees CHRISTIANITY text in purple for notes Voorhees The student will apply social science skills to understand the development of Christianity by a) describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and

More information

Bentley Chapter 16 Study Guide: The Two Worlds of Christendom

Bentley Chapter 16 Study Guide: The Two Worlds of Christendom Bentley Chapter 16 Study Guide: The Two Worlds of Christendom The Quest for Political Order (p. 328-329) 1. How did the east and west differ after the fall of the Roman Empire? The Early Byzantine Empire:

More information

The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra)

The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra) The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra) The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra), Umayyad, stone masonry, wooden roof, decorated with glazed ceramic tile, mosaics, and gilt aluminum and bronze dome, 691-2,

More information

The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra) Share this article

The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra) Share this article The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra) Share this article The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-sakhra), Umayyad, stone masonry, wooden roof, decorated with glazed ceramic tile, mosaics, and gilt aluminum and

More information

Section Quiz Chapter 9. Name ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Date ooooooooooooooooooooooooo Class ooooooooooooooo

Section Quiz Chapter 9. Name ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Date ooooooooooooooooooooooooo Class ooooooooooooooo Section Quiz 9-1 DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in with an item in. 1. lived in convents 2. fine paid by a wrongdoer 3. religious pratice of monks 4. bishop of Rome 5. Charles the Great A. wergild

More information

The Byzantine Empire. Chap. 13 Lesson 1. - The City of Constantinople

The Byzantine Empire. Chap. 13 Lesson 1. - The City of Constantinople The Byzantine Empire Chap. 13 Lesson 1 - The City of Constantinople Objectives: Identify Roman ideas that shaped the Byzantine Empire s culture. Analyze how Justinian I and Theodora changed the empire.

More information

Byzantine Empire & Kievan Russia AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( )

Byzantine Empire & Kievan Russia AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( ) Byzantine Empire & Kievan Russia AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) While the remnants of the Roman Empire in the West were experiencing the Dark Ages the Byzantine Empire (really the old Roman

More information

SSWH 4 Presentation. Classical World

SSWH 4 Presentation. Classical World SSWH 4 Presentation Classical World SSWH 4 Analyze the impact of the Byzantine and Mongol empires. Vocabulary Byzantine Empire - This empire began as the eastern half of the Roman Empire, with its capital

More information

The Crusades. Summary. Contents. Rob Waring. Level Before Reading Think Ahead During Reading Comprehension... 5

The Crusades. Summary. Contents. Rob Waring. Level Before Reading Think Ahead During Reading Comprehension... 5 Level 4-10 The Crusades Rob Waring Summary This book is about the battles for Jerusalem and control of the Holy Land. Contents Before Reading Think Ahead... 2 Vocabulary... 3 During Reading Comprehension...

More information

The Power of the Church

The Power of the Church Questions 1. How powerful was the Roman Catholic Church? 2. What were the Crusades? 3. What caused the Crusades? 4. Why was the First Crusade unsuccessful? 5. Which Muslim leader took over Jerusalem during

More information

EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Early Christianity AD. outline. Catacombs

EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Early Christianity AD. outline. Catacombs EARLY CHRISTIANITY XP Early Christianity 33-550 AD about 500 years outline Christianity from underground to emperor Constantine Shift from Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire Justinian Changes in art & thoughts

More information

BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Pg

BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Pg BYZANTINE EMPIRE Pg.289-294 BYZANTINE EMPIRE IN 5 MINUTES OR LESS Bulgaria Turkey (Constantinople) Constantine I built a "new Rome" where the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium used to be. (combination

More information

Beginnings of Christianity

Beginnings of Christianity CHRISTIANITY Beginnings of Christianity Jesus born in Bethlehem and raised in Nazareth Quest for the historical Jesus Synoptic Gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke Jesus complained about Missed the meaning

More information

A. After the Roman Empire collapsed, western Europe was ruled by Germanic tribes.

A. After the Roman Empire collapsed, western Europe was ruled by Germanic tribes. Timeline I. Medieval Europe A. After the Roman Empire collapsed, western Europe was ruled by Germanic tribes. B. By the 4 th century, the Catholic Church became more powerful. The church was (is) organized

More information

The Crusades Wonders of Arabia

The Crusades Wonders of Arabia The Crusades Wonders of Arabia Windstar Cruises Ross Arnold, Fall 2017 Wonders of Arabia Lectures Nov 8- Children of Abraham; Understanding Islam Nov 9- Moses, Israelites, and Crossing the Red Sea; Lawrence

More information

Name. The Crusades. Aim #1: What were the Crusades?

Name. The Crusades. Aim #1: What were the Crusades? Name The Crusades Aim #1: What were the Crusades? The Crusades were a series of wars starting in 1095 CE that lasted into the end of the 13th century (1200s) in which European Christians tried to win control

More information

Medieval Europe. Medieval Europe The Catholic Church

Medieval Europe. Medieval Europe The Catholic Church What It Wasn t Life in is often depicted with knights in shining armor, kings, queens, and glorious pageantry, but in truth it was often harsh, uncertain, and dangerous. What It Was Also called the Middle

More information

Rise and Spread of Islam

Rise and Spread of Islam Rise and Spread of Islam I. Byzantine Regions A. Almost entirely Christian by 550 CE B. Priests and monks numerous - needed much money and food to support I. Byzantine Regions C. Many debates about true

More information

B. After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories in Northern Europe& gained great wealth

B. After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories in Northern Europe& gained great wealth I. Roman Republic Expands A. Punic Wars - A series of battles where Rome defeated Carthage (North Africa) & became the dominant power in the Mediterranean B. After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories

More information

Unit VI - Byzantine, Mongol & Russian Empires

Unit VI - Byzantine, Mongol & Russian Empires Name: Unit VI - Byzantine, Mongol & Russian Empires Remember - Reading Guides will now be collected with study guides at the end of the unit. They will count as two grades, like a quiz. Answer all the

More information

Constantinople. World Religions and the History of Christianity: Eastern Orthodox

Constantinople. World Religions and the History of Christianity: Eastern Orthodox World Religions and the History of Christianity: Eastern Orthodox Constantine Constantine Constantine believed that the Roman Empire had become too big and disorganized to be managed as one Empire. So

More information

NAME DATE CLASS. Black Sea. Constantinople ASIA MINOR GREECE Tarsus Sicily. Antioch Aegean Sea. Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem. Alexandria JUDAEA EGYPT

NAME DATE CLASS. Black Sea. Constantinople ASIA MINOR GREECE Tarsus Sicily. Antioch Aegean Sea. Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem. Alexandria JUDAEA EGYPT Lesson 1 Early Christianity ESSENTIAL QUESTION What are the characteristics of a leader? GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. How did the Jews respond to Roman rule? 2. Why were the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth

More information

HCP WORLD HISTORY PROJECT THE ROMAN CONQUEST

HCP WORLD HISTORY PROJECT THE ROMAN CONQUEST Coosa High School Rome, Georgia Instructor: Randy Vice Created by: Kierra Smith, Kayla Breeden, and Myra Hernandez HCP WORLD HISTORY PROJECT THE ROMAN CONQUEST SECTION ONE: POWERPOINT SECTION TWO: WRITTEN

More information

Early Byzantine Europe 50, 51, 52, 54

Early Byzantine Europe 50, 51, 52, 54 Early Byzantine Europe 50, 51, 52, 54 Guiding Questions Where we were... Key Point 1 Byzantine Empire evolves out of the remains of the Roman Empire and uses the same iconography Key Point 2 Christians

More information

The Muslim PR Game Called The Crusades by Armin Vamberian and Robert Sibley (Reprinted here by permission of Armin Vamberian)

The Muslim PR Game Called The Crusades by Armin Vamberian and Robert Sibley (Reprinted here by permission of Armin Vamberian) The Muslim PR Game Called The Crusades by Armin Vamberian and Robert Sibley (Reprinted here by permission of Armin Vamberian) There are some who seem to think that 9/11 was caused by America. They say

More information

Turning Points The Great Schism. Week 6: March 8, 2015

Turning Points The Great Schism. Week 6: March 8, 2015 Turning Points The Great Schism Week 6: March 8, 2015 Creed by Rich Mullins I Believe what I Believe Is what Makes Me what I Am I did not Make It, No It is Making Me. It is the Very Truth of God and Not

More information

Time Periods for this chapter include:

Time Periods for this chapter include: PART FIVE Chapter 15: Christianity and the Formation of Europe Time Periods for this chapter include: Early Christian: Byzantium Middle Ages: Carolingian, Romanesque, and Gothic Key Terms for this chapter

More information

BYZANTINES, RUSSIANS & TURKS INTERACT, Chapter 11, Honors World Civilizations

BYZANTINES, RUSSIANS & TURKS INTERACT, Chapter 11, Honors World Civilizations BYZANTINES, RUSSIANS & TURKS INTERACT, 500-1500 Chapter 11, Honors World Civilizations WHAT THEMES TO LOOK FOR (ESSAY QUESTIONS ON TESTS) RELIGIOUS & ETHICAL SYSTEMS: In this chapter, they are most definitely

More information

Chapter 11. The Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity in the West, 31 B.C.E. 800 C.E.

Chapter 11. The Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity in the West, 31 B.C.E. 800 C.E. Chapter 11 The Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity in the West, 31 B.C.E. 800 C.E. p142 Roman Decline Rome s power to rule began to decline after Marcus Aurelius (161-180 CE) Germanic tribes invaded

More information

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Essential Question: What factors led to the collapse of the Roman Empire and what effect did the fall of Rome have on the Mediterranean world? Warm-Up Question:

More information

The Catholic Church and the Crusades

The Catholic Church and the Crusades The Catholic Church and the Crusades Why do you think the Church was so important to people in the Early Middle Ages? Hint: Think about the feudal stuff we did for homework Basic beliefs and rituals of

More information

Chapter 10, Lesson 3 Kingdoms & Crusades. It Matters Because: The development of law & government during the Middle Ages still affects us today.

Chapter 10, Lesson 3 Kingdoms & Crusades. It Matters Because: The development of law & government during the Middle Ages still affects us today. Chapter 10, Lesson 3 Kingdoms & Crusades It Matters Because: The development of law & government during the Middle Ages still affects us today. I. Royal Power in England A. Late 800s, Viking raids nearly

More information

Early Middle Ages = C.E. High Middle Ages = C.E. Late Middle Ages = C.E.

Early Middle Ages = C.E. High Middle Ages = C.E. Late Middle Ages = C.E. Middle Ages = European history between the fall of the Roman Empire (476) and the Modern Era (1450) Also called the Medieval Period ( Medium is Latin for Middle; aevum is Latin for age) Early Middle Ages

More information

Name: Date: Period: Chapter 9 Reading Guide. D. What major area has been lost by 1000 CE, other than Italy?

Name: Date: Period: Chapter 9 Reading Guide. D. What major area has been lost by 1000 CE, other than Italy? Name: Date: Period: UNIT SUMMARY Chapter 9 Reading Guide Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe, p.204-218 In addition to the great civilizations of Asia and North Africa forming

More information

The Renaissance Begins AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( )

The Renaissance Begins AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS ( ) The Renaissance Begins AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS (600 1450) During the Medieval times the Latin West had fallen backward and was far behind the Islamic world in intellectual achievements. In the

More information

4. THE HAN EMPIRE 200 BC-200 AD

4. THE HAN EMPIRE 200 BC-200 AD 4. THE HAN EMPIRE 200 BC-200 AD CHINA S SYMBOL: THE DRAGON A. Govt & Military 1. Emperor with complete control 2. Military: a. Used the Great Wall to keep invaders out B. Economy 1. Empire linked through

More information

BYZANTINE EMPIRE Eastern part of the former Roman Empire= Byzantine Empire Capital is Constantinople

BYZANTINE EMPIRE Eastern part of the former Roman Empire= Byzantine Empire Capital is Constantinople BYZANTINE EMPIRE BYZANTINE EMPIRE Eastern part of the former Roman Empire= Byzantine Empire Western part goes into decline because all the money and power goes to the East Capital is Constantinople (named

More information

Why did people go on Crusade?

Why did people go on Crusade? Source 1: Pope Urban II, speaking in 1095 Most beloved brethren: Urged by necessity, I, Urban, God s chief bishop over the whole world, have come into these parts as an ambassador with a divine admonition

More information

viii Contents III. The Twelfth Century Introduction Monarchy, Thrones and Territory The Throne of England...45 A. Henry I...46

viii Contents III. The Twelfth Century Introduction Monarchy, Thrones and Territory The Throne of England...45 A. Henry I...46 Contents I. Introduction...1 1. The Conversation on Sunday Afternoon...1 2. Utopia...1 3. Facts...3 4. Casus Belli in Practice...3 5. Volume Two...4 II. The Eleventh Century...5 1. Introduction...5 2.

More information

Chapter 22 Southwest Asia pg Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran pg

Chapter 22 Southwest Asia pg Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran pg Chapter 22 Southwest Asia pg. 674 695 22 1 Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran pg. 677 681 Assume the role of a leader of an oil rich country. Why would you maybe need to diversify your country s economy? What

More information

Can you describe the typical Byzantine church (plan, elevation and ornamentation) and explain how it changed from the Early to Late Byzantine period?

Can you describe the typical Byzantine church (plan, elevation and ornamentation) and explain how it changed from the Early to Late Byzantine period? CHAPTER 12 Can you describe the typical Byzantine church (plan, elevation and ornamentation) and explain how it changed from the Early to Late Byzantine period? Can you explain how pendentives and squinches

More information

Medieval Europe. 1. Kingdoms and Christianity The Early Middle Ages The High Middle Ages Mr.

Medieval Europe. 1. Kingdoms and Christianity The Early Middle Ages The High Middle Ages Mr. Medieval Europe 1. Kingdoms and Christianity 300 1250 2. The Early Middle Ages 800 1215 3. The High Middle Ages 1000 1500 Mr. Schenk Kingdoms and Christianity 1. The Byzantine Empire 2. The Rise of Russia

More information

STATION ONE: BYZANTIUM

STATION ONE: BYZANTIUM STATION ONE: BYZANTIUM http://byzantium.seashell.net.nz The Last Emperor Five and a half centuries ago, on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, a Turkish army stormed and captured Constantinople after laying siege to

More information

Early Christian Art. Sarcophagus = Tomb Junius Bassus = Roman Prefect. From the period soon after Christianity becomes legal

Early Christian Art. Sarcophagus = Tomb Junius Bassus = Roman Prefect. From the period soon after Christianity becomes legal Medieval Art Early Christian Art Sarcophagus = Tomb Junius Bassus = Roman Prefect Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, 359 C.E. (Vatican, Grottoes of St. Peter) From the period soon after Christianity becomes

More information

11/24/2015. Islam. Outcome: Islamic Empires

11/24/2015. Islam. Outcome: Islamic Empires Islam Outcome: Islamic Empires 1 Constructive Response Question 3.Generalize who were the Ottomans, Mughals, and Safavids? 2 What will we learn? 1.Islamic culture 2.The Ottoman Empire 3.The Mughals 4.The

More information

The Crusades THEY WERE A SERIES OF RELIGIOUS WARS BETWEEN CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS FOUGHT BETWEEN THE 11 TH TO 13 TH CENTURIES.

The Crusades THEY WERE A SERIES OF RELIGIOUS WARS BETWEEN CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS FOUGHT BETWEEN THE 11 TH TO 13 TH CENTURIES. The Crusades The Crusades WHAT WERE THEY? THEY WERE A SERIES OF RELIGIOUS WARS BETWEEN CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS FOUGHT BETWEEN THE 11 TH TO 13 TH CENTURIES. THESE WARS WERE BEGUN BY CHRISTIANS AND CAUSED

More information

History Alive - Chapter 37: The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World -

History Alive - Chapter 37: The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World - History Alive - Chapter 37: The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World - VOCABULARY - a contribution of one culture to another - the art of designing buildings - human creations intended to express beauty

More information

CHAPTER 9. Medieval Civilization

CHAPTER 9. Medieval Civilization CHAPTER 9 Medieval Civilization In the late Middle Ages, life began to change in Europe. Feudal warfare declined and trade started to flourish again. Towns also began to grow, which stimulated the local

More information

Unit 24: The Ottoman Turks and the Fall of the Eastern Empire

Unit 24: The Ottoman Turks and the Fall of the Eastern Empire T h e A r t i o s H o m e C o m p a n i o n S e r i e s Unit 24: The Ottoman Turks and the Fall of the Eastern Empire T e a c h e r O v e r v i e w MUSLIM TURKS conquered Constantinople in the same year

More information

Western Europe Ch

Western Europe Ch Western Europe Ch 11 600-1450 Western Europe: After the Fall of Rome Middle Ages or medieval times Between the fall of Roman Empire and the European Renaissance Dark Ages? Divide into the Early Middle

More information

The Crusades Myth and Romanticism Modern Myth and Romanticism Background Europe in the 1000s Primogeniture Pope Urban II

The Crusades Myth and Romanticism Modern Myth and Romanticism Background Europe in the 1000s Primogeniture Pope Urban II The Crusades Myth and Romanticism For centuries, the crusades have been romanticized and mythologized in the Western world Crusaders were glorified in Europe where the people had little knowledge or understanding

More information

Vikings, Slavs, Byzantines and the Development of Russia. Who are the Vikings? Who are the Slavs? NOTES ON RUSSIA. Kiev. Who are the Byzantines?

Vikings, Slavs, Byzantines and the Development of Russia. Who are the Vikings? Who are the Slavs? NOTES ON RUSSIA. Kiev. Who are the Byzantines? Who are the Vikings? Vikings, Slavs, Byzantines and the Development of Russia Who are the Slavs? VIKINGS NOTES ON RUSSIA SLAVS Kiev BYZANTINE EMPIRE Who are the Byzantines? THE SLAVS Who are the Slavs?

More information

One of the flags of the Knight s Templar. A Knight Templar

One of the flags of the Knight s Templar. A Knight Templar One of the flags of the Knight s Templar A Knight Templar What were the causes and consequences of the Crusades on the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim populations in Europe? Write your own definition for

More information

Heaven on Earth. much as the residents of the West did. In fact, Constantine

Heaven on Earth. much as the residents of the West did. In fact, Constantine Heaven on Earth 8 62 Map of the maximum extent of the Byzantine Empire (edited map: xenohistorian.faithweb.com/ europe/eu08.html) The Byzantine Empire expanded and contracted many times from 476, when

More information

The Vikings. The Little Told Story of Scandanavia in the Dark Ages

The Vikings. The Little Told Story of Scandanavia in the Dark Ages The Vikings The Little Told Story of Scandanavia in the Dark Ages The Viking (modern day Danes, Norwegians, and Swedes) seafaring excursions occurred from about 780 to 1070 AD. They started raiding and

More information

First Crusade ( )

First Crusade ( ) What were the Crusades? The Crusades were a series of military campaigns during the later Middle Ages fought against the Muslims of the Middle East. In 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem - the most

More information

World History (Survey) Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe,

World History (Survey) Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe, World History (Survey) Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe, 800 1500 Section 1: Church Reform and the Crusades Beginning in the 1000s, a new sense of spiritual feeling arose in Europe, which led

More information

Ancient Rome. Timeline Cards

Ancient Rome. Timeline Cards Ancient Rome Timeline Cards ISBN: 978-1-68380-015-6 Subject Matter Expert Michael J. Carter, PhD, Professor, Department of Classics, Brock University Illustration and Photo Credits Title Jacob Wyatt Chapter

More information

Below are some excerpts from the code of Justinian. After each excerpt answer the questions. I. Justice and Law

Below are some excerpts from the code of Justinian. After each excerpt answer the questions. I. Justice and Law Name Justinian s Code Primary Source Analysis Justinian was the greatest Emperor of the Byzantine Empire. The achievements of his reign are numerous. He rebuilt parts of the city. He built the church of

More information

( ) EUROPE AWAKENS... 3 SPANISH CLAIMS AND CONQUESTS ENGLISH EFFORTS SPANISH FRENCH AND DUTCH... 33

( ) EUROPE AWAKENS... 3 SPANISH CLAIMS AND CONQUESTS ENGLISH EFFORTS SPANISH FRENCH AND DUTCH... 33 HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY 801 EUROPE COMES TO AMERICA (1492 1620) CONTENTS I. QUEST AND CONQUEST.................. 2 EUROPE AWAKENS.................................. 3 THE VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS..........................

More information

Muslim Civilizations

Muslim Civilizations Muslim Civilizations Muhammad the Prophet Born ca. 570 in Mecca Trading center; home of the Kaaba Marries Khadija At 40 he goes into the hills to meditate; God sends Gabriel with a call Khadija becomes

More information

Europe s Cultures Teacher: Mrs. Moody

Europe s Cultures Teacher: Mrs. Moody Europe s Cultures Teacher: Mrs. Moody ACTIVATE YOUR BRAIN Greece Germany Poland Belgium Learning Target: I CAN describe the cultural characteristics of Europe. Cultural expressions are ways to show culture

More information

Chapter. The Byzantine Empire and Russia (A.D. 330 A.D. 1613)

Chapter. The Byzantine Empire and Russia (A.D. 330 A.D. 1613) Chapter 9 The Byzantine Empire and Russia (A.D. 330 A.D. 1613) In small groups, find evidence to support the following thesis statements. 1. Justinian was an autocrat. 2. Women could attain positions of

More information

Name Class Date. Vocabulary Builder. 1. Constantinople was at the center of the Eastern Roman Empire for more than a thousand years.

Name Class Date. Vocabulary Builder. 1. Constantinople was at the center of the Eastern Roman Empire for more than a thousand years. Vocabulary Builder Section 1 DIRECTIONS Read each sentence and choose the correct term from the word bank to replace the underlined definition. Theodora Belisarius Byzantine Empire 1. Constantinople was

More information

b. a) Turkey Incorrect. The answer is c. Christianity was the majority religion in Egypt by the time of the conquest.

b. a) Turkey Incorrect. The answer is c. Christianity was the majority religion in Egypt by the time of the conquest. 1. This Muslim holy building was constructed on the site of the Jewish Temple. a. b) Dome of the Rock Correct. The answer is b. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was built on the site of the Jewish Temple

More information

The Legacy of Justinian

The Legacy of Justinian Name Date Class Period Quaestio: Nunc Agenda: Working with your partner, answer the following question about the Byzantine Empire using your prior knowledge. Try to answer them without looking, but if

More information

The Decline of Rome. I. Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors, died in 180, and a series of civil wars followed.

The Decline of Rome. I. Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors, died in 180, and a series of civil wars followed. The Fall of Rome I. Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors, died in 180, and a series of civil wars followed. II. The Decline of Rome From 196 to 284, the throne was occupied by whoever had

More information

What is Islam? Second largest religion in the world. 1.2 Billion Muslims (20% of earth population) Based on beliefs on Jews & Christians

What is Islam? Second largest religion in the world. 1.2 Billion Muslims (20% of earth population) Based on beliefs on Jews & Christians Islamic Religion What is Islam? Second largest religion in the world 1.2 Billion Muslims (20% of earth population) Began in modern day Saudi Arabia Based on beliefs on Jews & Christians Abraham is first

More information

The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division

The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division CHAPTER 10 The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division 500 1300 CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES To examine European society after the breakup of the Roman Empire To compare the diverse

More information

The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins

The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins 1. What happened to Rome in 410 AD? 2. Why would this sack of Rome be physiologically crushing to the Romans? 3. Who is Alaric? 4. What are Alaric and his Visigoths

More information