[ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq

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1 [ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq

2 [ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq Learning Objectives Describe the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia. Explain the origins and beliefs of Islam, including the significance of Ramadan and the annual hajj, and trace the spread of Islam. Identify important events in modern Arabia and Iraq, including the creation of Iraq, the discovery of oil, and the Persian Gulf conflicts.

3 [ 6.5 ] History of Arabia and Iraq Key Terms civilization Mesopotamia Mecca monotheism Quran caliph Ramadan hajj mosques minority dictator

4 Climate, Water, and People in Arabia and Iraq Because of dry climates in this region, water is scarce. Pipelines transport fresh water. Analyze Maps: What climate dominates this region? Where are other climates present in this region?

5 Early Civilizations & Empires in Arabia & Iraq

6 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq

7 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq

8 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq Arabia and Iraq have played a key role in world history. This region was one of the places where civilization began. A civilization is a culture that has a written language and in which people have many different kinds of jobs. Writing first developed in this region. The world s first known empires also developed in what is now Iraq.

9 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq Later, Arabia was the birthplace of Islam, one of the world s major religions. Over the centuries, foreign powers controlled much of this region. In modern times, Arabia and Iraq became the world s most important source of oil, a fuel that every country in the world uses.

10 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq A Birthplace of Civilization Mesopotamia = between the rivers in Greek Present-day Iraq The Fertile Crescent; planting of crops and raising of animals More food surplus some people become merchants (potters, weavers, etc.) Taxes for the government supported priests and government officials population growth The Sumerians Sumer - region in southern Mesopotamia First writing system - cuneiform Developments: Irrigation canals, mathematics, potter s wheel Epic of Gilgamesh: one of the world s oldest written stories based on the real king, Gilgamesh, who lived around 2700 B.C.

11 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq The First Empires Sumerian cities grew into first city-states City-state: a small country focused on a single city 2270 B.C. King Sargon from the city of Akkad conquered Sumer and other parts of Mesopotamia founded the first known empire Later, around 1700 B.C., the city-state of Babylon built an empire that included all of Mesopotamia Babylonians added to our knowledge of mathematics & astronomy Then, the Assyrians defeated Babylon around 900 B.C. and created an even bigger empire that included Egypt. The Assyrians became a model for later empires

12 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs Around 550 B.C., Mesopotamia fell under Persian control Persian Empire stretched from North Africa to India The Persian Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great Alexander founded many cities and spread Greek culture When he died, his empire was split apart The Roman Empire eventually took over part of Alexander s empire Fought with Persia over the fertile lands of Mesopotamia Greeks, Romans, and Persians encountered Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula through trade nomads, no permanent home herded sheep, goats, and camels visited oases for food and water; were centers for trade

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14 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq This carving from a palace in Nimrud, in northern Iraq, shows an Assyrian king with his assistants. The Assyrians built a mighty empire in ancient times.

15 Early Civilizations and Empires in Arabia and Iraq Sequence Events: Large empires developed centuries after the first writing system. Why might this be the case?

16 Islam & Islamic Civilizations

17 Islam and Islamic Civilizations In early Arabia, one important place was the city of Mecca. It was a trading and religious center, built at an oasis. People throughout the Arabian Peninsula traveled to Mecca. They went to worship at a shrine called the Kaaba. Many worshiped more than one god. In the a.d. 600s, however, this changed.

18 Islam and Islamic Civilizations The Birth of Islam Muhammad - born in Mecca Muslims believe that he saw the angel Gabriel who brought him messages from God when he was meditating Quran - the holy book of Islam that contains those messages Muslims kicked out of Mecca in 622 A.D. moved to Medina where they were attacked by Mecca Muslims won and Muhammad returned to Mecca the next year. Made the Kaaba a place of worship for Islam Muhammad s death in 623 followers argued over how to choose next leader two groups emerged Shia - believed they should follow his son-in-law, Ali Sunnis - believed they should follow his father-in-law, Abu Bakr He became the first caliph, political & religious leader

19 Islam and Islamic Civilizations Muslims gather at the Great Mosque in Mecca. The Kaaba, the black, cube-shaped building in the center of the crowd, is the holiest site in Islam.

20 Islam and Islamic Civilizations The Beliefs of Islam The word Islam means submission ; submitting one s will to God God = Allah Importance of family and community Sharia = islamic law formed by the Quran, Muhammad s teachings, and the traditions of family and community The Five Pillars - five religious duties followed by Muslims

21 Islam and Islamic Civilizations

22 Islam and Islamic Civilizations A Muslim Empire Eventually conquered all of the Persian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabia, North Africa, Spain, and parts of India and central Asia. Established Baghdad in present-day Iraq as the capital of their empire Controlled trade routes connecting Asia, Africa, and Europe, including the Silk Road to China Center of Culture and Learning Arabia and Iraq were centers of a rich civilization Baghdad became a center of learning Advances in science, mathematics, and the arts formed the basis for modern chemistry, physics, and medicine Developed algebra Built mosques, or Islamic houses of worship

23 Islam and Islamic Civilizations Trade played an important role in the Arab Muslim empire. The Silk Road passed through it. Analyze Maps: Which city in Arabia and Iraq was most important to trade? Why?

24 Islam and Islamic Civilizations The Ottoman Empire The Arab Muslim Empire fell apart after the 900s and was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Turks. The Ottomans were not Arabs; they were Turkish people who were Muslim also, which helped spread Islam and Islamic culture.

25 Modern-Day Arabia & Iraq

26 Arabia and Iraq in Modern Times Make Generalizations: What generalizations can be made about where Iraq's different ethnic groups live?

27 Governments in Arabia and Iraq Arabia and Iraq have had different types of governments over the centuries. Kings ruled city-states and empires in ancient Mesopotamia. After the spread of Islam in the a.d. 600s, Muslim caliphs ruled a vast empire. A dictator controlled Iraq from 1979 to Today, monarchs rule most of the region. Some have total power, while others rule according to constitutions and share power. Democracy is also growing in the region.

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