Big Idea The Ottoman Empire Expands. Essential Question How did the Ottomans expand their empire?

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1 Big Idea The Ottoman Empire Expands. Essential Question How did the Ottomans expand their empire? 1

2 Words To Know Sultan the leader of the Ottoman Empire, like a emperor or a king. Religious tolerance - allowing a person or group of people to practice/believe their religion, beliefs or philosophy. Let s Set The Stage The Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest and longest-lasting dynasties in world history. This Islamic-run superpower ruled large areas of the Middle East, Eastern Europe and North Africa for more than 600 years. The chief leader, known as the Sultan, was given absolute religious and political authority over his people. While Western Europeans generally viewed them as a threat, many historians regard the Ottoman Empire as a source of great stability and security in the land they ruled, as well as important achievements in the arts, science, religion and culture. 2

3 The Ottoman Empire ruled parts of Africa. The Ottoman Empire ruled the Middle East. 3

4 The Ottoman Empire ruled Eastern Europe. The Origin of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks. 4

5 Osman I, a leader of the Turkish tribes, founded the Ottoman Empire around The term Ottoman came from Osman s name. The Ottoman Turks set up a formal government and expanded their territory under the leadership of Osman I and other Sultans. 5

6 Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman and Byzantine empires. Named after Emperor Constantine the Great, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe for around 1000 years from the mid 400s to the early 1400s. Over the centuries, there were several attempts to conquer Constantinople. In 1453, the Ottomans conquered the city of Constantinople, known today as Istanbul (which means the city of Islam ). After a nearly two-month siege, Ottoman cannons finally blasted gaps in the great defensive walls of the city, and it became the new capital of the Ottoman empire. 6

7 This gave the Ottomans control over an important part of land and water known as the Mediterranean Sea (trade routes), which extended their power into Europe and the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire s conquest of Constantinople was a major turning point because it marked the end of the Byzantine Empire and some argue, the end of the Middle Ages. 7

8 The victory by the Muslim Ottoman Empire also threatened the dominance of Christianity in the region as the Ottoman came to control one of the most important cities which also held significant Christian structures like the Hagia Sophia. By 1516, the Ottomans took over Syria. The next year they took over Egypt and the year after that they conquered Algeria in northern Africa. By then, all of Europe feared the Ottomans. 8

9 As the Ottoman Empire grew, new people, particularly non-muslims, became part of the empire. The Ottoman Empire was diverse (different) and composed of three major religious and ethnic groups; Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Although conversion to Islam was not demanded of the conquered, many Christians and a few Jewish people voluntarily converted to have full rights in the empire. Those who did not convert continued to practice their old religions without restriction (tolerance). 9

10 Essential Question Answered How did the Ottomans expand their empire? The Ottoman state emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks. The Ottomans ruled large areas of the Middle East, Eastern Europe and North Africa for more than 600 years. In 1453, the Ottomans conquered the city of Constantinople. This gave the Ottomans control of important land and sea trading routes. Essential Question Answered How did the Ottomans expand their empire? The Ottomans eventually conquered Northern Africa (Algeria and Egypt) and Syria (Middle East). At the height of its power, the Ottoman Empire brought peace and stability to the lands they ruled and fear to their enemies. 10

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