Arabia before Muhammad

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1 THE RISE OF ISLAM

2 Arabia before Muhammad Arabian Origins By 6 th century CE = Arabic-speakers throughout Syrian desert

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4 Arabia before Muhammad Arabian Origins By 6 th century CE = Arabic-speakers throughout Syrian desert Philip the Arab, Roman Emperor (r ) Byzantine & Persian influence Bedouin people = nomadic tribes sheikhs = tribal leaders Community-oriented Tribal deities Mecca & the Ka bah

5 Muhammad the Prophet Muhammad (ca ) = orphan, descendent of Qusayy Married into wealth Lots of contact with Jews and Christians 610 = had his first revelation Muhammad, the Preacher Recorded teachings in the Qur an An Abrahamic faith, but the best one Muslim = one who submits Emphasis on a duty to worship Scripture is literal Early rejections... September 620 = Hijra : 300-mile pilgrimage to Medina Established the Umma

6 Triumphant Islam Taking over Medina... Muslims expelled Jewish clans Taking over Mecca... Raids on trade routes 629 = invasion of Mecca Muhammad began focusing on politics Women under Islam Pros = not the origin of evil; no female infanticide; inheritance/property rights Cons = subordinate to men; male-centric polygamy; segregation

7 The Spread of Islam Mecca = new capital of Islamic religion jihad = holy struggle to destroy idol worship Tolerance toward other religions, but special taxes 632 = Muhammad dies Initial loss of political/cultural influence Abu Bakr (ruled, ) = caliph Led a war of reconversion

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9 The Spread of Islam Mecca = new capital of Islamic religion jihad = holy war to destroy idol worship Tolerance toward other religions, but special taxes 632 = Muhammad dies Initial loss of political/cultural influence Abu Bakr (ruled, ) = caliph Led a war of reconversion Umar (ruled, ) Expanded Islam into Iran, Iraq, Syria, Egypt Won victories against Sassanids and Byzantines

10 The Spread of Islam Living under Islamic rule For many, Muslims were liberators By 650 = power vacuum between Byzantium & Persia

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13 The Spread of Islam Living under Islamic rule For many, Muslims were liberators By 650 = power vacuum between Byzantium & Persia By 8 th century = Muslims threatening Constantinople Pushed back, but decimated Empire

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15 Government under Islam First model = pre-islamic tribal authority Umma = super-tribe Second model = leadership of Muhammad s family Kept bureaucracy of conquered lands Only state land and Zoroastrian land confiscated First Crisis of the Caliphate Third Caliph, Uthman (ruled, ) Open rebellion throughout Arabia and Egypt 656 = Uthman murdered Fourth Caliph, Ali (ruled, ) Moved from Arabia to Iraq 661 = murdered Laid groundwork for Shi ism

16 Later Caliphates Umayyads = wanted to use Islam to unify Arabs Extended Islamic Empire to greatest extent

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18 Later Caliphates Umayyads = wanted to use Islam to unify Arabs Extended Islamic Empire to greatest extent Abbasid Revolution = religious reformation 750 = Umayyads overthrown in favor of Muhammad s family No special privileges for Arabs Division! 10 th century = emirs took command of provinces Sunni Muslims accepted these leaders Shi a Muslims did not 11 th century = Turkish invasions

19 Islamic Civilization Lots of wealth (esp. in Mesopotamia) Enormous trade networks Baghdad = world s greatest marketplace Exchanged ideas too! Science! Emphasis on math and astronomy Al-Khwarizmi ( ) = father of algebra Medical science Al-Razi ( ) Ibn Sina ( )

20 Islamic Civilization Philosophy! Translations of Aristotle and Plato Ibn Rushd ( ) = the Commentator Moses Maimonides ( ) = Jewish philosopher Christians fight back! 11 th century = raiding parties from Constantinople Support from all of Christian Europe Recaptured Jerusalem

21 Imperial Disintegration Macedonian Dynasty ( ) = last gasp of Byzantine Empire Ended in revolt Reliance on mercenary armies Peasants started relying on the protection of a lord Commercial threats... Byzantine Empire had to rely on Italian navies 1071 = Byzantium loses Italy and Anatolia

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23 Conquering Constantinople Attacks from the West... Powerful Western Europe 1054 = Great Schism, formal split between Catholic & Orthodox European Crusaders 1204 = Crusaders capture Constantinople 1261 = Constantinople recaptured

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25 Conquering Constantinople Attacks from the West... Powerful Western Europe 1054 = Great Schism, formal split between Catholic & Orthodox European Crusaders 1204 = Crusaders capture Constantinople 1261 = Constantinople recaptured Attacks from the East = Mongols & Genghis Khan invade Persia 1258 = Mongols capture Baghdad 1350 = Mongol Empire collapses 1453 = Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople

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