What is Islam? Second largest religion in the world. 1.2 Billion Muslims (20% of earth population) Based on beliefs on Jews & Christians

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1 Islamic Religion

2 What is Islam? Second largest religion in the world 1.2 Billion Muslims (20% of earth population) Began in modern day Saudi Arabia Based on beliefs on Jews & Christians Abraham is first important figure Belief in the same, single God Follows the teachings of the prophet Muhammad

3 What is the Qur an? Holy Book of Islam Revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel Contains the words of Allah. Ideally, it should be read and printed in Arabic only. Contains parts of the Torah and Bible

4 Who is Muhammad? A prophet of God, but not a god himself He is not worshipped Born in Saudi Arabia, in city of Mecca A trader until age 40, when Qur an revealed to him. His teachings are the foundation of Islam.

5 Who is Muhammad? Claimed to travel with Angles to Jerusalem one night Given tour of Heaven and Hell Temple built over the site where he went to heaven. He and his followers make polytheists in Mecca angry, move to Medina. (hijra) After a decade, he invades Mecca. Later, he leads some battles himself to defend the faith. Dies in Medina at age 63 No male sons Only one daughter

6 Basic Islamic Beliefs 1. One unique god, without a partner or son. 1. Belief in God s revealed books: - Torah, Bible, Qur an 2. Belief in all Gods prophets: - Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad 3. A final day of judgment. 4. Belief in the angels of God.

7 Other Beliefs Islam Emphasizes: Tolerance, Humility, Justice, generosity, obedience to law, and courage. Islam Forbids the consumption of: Pork (pigs believed to be unclean) Alcohol

8 The Five Pillars of Islam Muhammad said five pillars held up the building of Islam: 1. Testimony of Faith - There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. 2. Prayer: - 5 times a day 3. Charity: - 2.5% of Muslim income goes to the needy, mosques, etc 4. Fasting - During Ramadan, no eating during the day 5. Hajj: - Travel to Mecca at least once, if physically/financially able.

9 The Fifth Pillar of Islam Pilgrimage to Mecca The Hajj 3-6 days of rituals and prayer Focus is on the Ka'ba, the holiest shrine and supposed first house of mankind. Pilgrims are called hajji Not to be used as a derogatory word Women may not go without men.

10 Two Major Sects: Sunni Shi a (Shiite) Sects of Islam Sunni approx 90% of Muslims Believe successors to Muhammad should be chosen by the community Do not believe in intermediary (middle-man) between Allah and people. Shi a (Shiite) approx 10% of Muslims Think Muhammad s successor should be his relatives Believe in an intermediary called an Imam Those with religious authority should rule govn t too.

11 Successors of Muhammad Abu Bakr is chosen as Caliph Bakr s advisor becomes caliph later. To avoid civil wars of succession, each diverted attention by invading neighboring, non-muslim nations. Weak Persian and Byzantine empires made conquest easy.

12 Spread of Islam

13 Spread of Islam Islam spreads despite major geographic barriers including mountains and deserts. Is at first spread along the major trade routes to Mecca and Medina. Arabic language facilitated trade and intellectual activities. Arabic was the language of the Koran Therefore, all Muslims could communicate in Arabic. Traders thus spread the religion and other ideas as they traded.

14 Arabs as Conquerors Tolerant of conquered people. Conquered people had three choices: 1. Convert to Islam 2. Don t convert, pay annual tribute * Non-Muslims could not be in government 3. Refusal of both meant death Muslims conquer major cities of Jerusalem and Damascus. Muslim invasion into Europe stopped at battle of Tours when Franks defeat the Moors of Spain. In less than 100 years, Muslim/Arab empire spread from India to Spain.

15 Spread of Islam

16 The Crusades Muslims called Seljuk Turks invade Byzantium. Westerners try to recapture the Constantinople and other Holy Lands. Seljuk Turks defeated. Crusades spread Arab ideas, culture, and art to Western Europe. 200 years later, the Ottoman Turks finally defeat Byzantine Empire in 1453 AD.

17 Little Political Unity Despite a common language and religion, political unity if the first Muslim Empire was short-lived. People fought over who should be Caliph Sunni / Shi a split Eventually the Muslim world split into three caliphates (areas). Capitals at Cordova (Spain), Cairo (Egypt), and Baghdad. Each had its own caliph.

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