Chapter 10. Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations

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1 Chapter 10 Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations

2 Section 1 The Byzantine Empire

3 Capital of Byzantine Empire Constantinople Protected by Greek Fire Constantinople Controlled by: Roman Empire Christians Byzantines Muslim Arabs Turks

4 Ruled Roman Empire Made 2 Changes: Constantine Became Christian stopped persecution Moved capital from Rome to Byzantium Built expensive city Fortified capital Renamed it Constantinople Early 500 s city successful People lived there Byzantines When Roman Empire fell split East strong military & trade

5 Trade Constantinople on Bosporus straight narrow channel links 2 bodies of water Black Sea & Mediterranean Sea Europe & Asia met there = riches

6 Middle Ages Period from fall of Roman Empire, AD 476 to 1500 Middle Ages also known as medieval exist during Middle Ages During this period Byzantines remained strong

7 One of the greatest rulers Always completed everything Justinian Listened to everyone Created Code of Justinian organized collection and explanation of Roman laws for use by the Byzantine Empire Became basis for legal system in most European countries Byzantine scholars kept and copied Greek works

8 After Justinian s Death 565 empire decline Emperors fought over religious & political arguments with: Turks & Persians (East) Arabs (South) Germanic (North & West)

9 Religion Problem Most were Christian Byzantine Christians rejected: Pope leader of the Church of Rome Emperor got to choose the Patriarch leader of the Church in Constantinople Greek spoken in Byzantine Church Latin spoken in Roman Church 2 Churches grew apart Christians prayed to holy people or saints represented by icons paintings of people 700 s Byzantine Emperor outlawed icons Pope disagreed and banished emperor from the church

10 Religion Problem Byzantines thought Pope did not have authority to do it = schism split = Roman Catholic Church West Eastern Orthodox Church - East

11 Second Golden Age 900-mid 1000 s trade, population grew Reign of Basil II ( ) best period since Justinian regained land

12 Fall of Constantinople Late 1100 s Turks taking land away 1171 disagreement with Venice overtrade = war 1200 s Constantinople attacked by Christian Crusaders ruled city for 50 years 1261 regain city empire gone ,000 Turks surrounded Constantinople 7,000 defenders held out for 2 months When city fell renamed Istanbul capital of Ottoman Empire

13 Section 2 Beginnings of Islam

14 Arabian Peninsula Mainly a desert No major rivers Little rainfall

15 Bediouns Nomads people who have no permanent home but move from place to place in search of food, water, & pastures Traveled on camels from oasis to oasis for water for them and their animals Herded sheep, camels, & goats (pg. 298) Acted as guides for caravans traders who traveled across the desert in large groups

16 Mecca One of the most important and busy trading centers on Arabian peninsula Goods went from there to Syria to Mediterranean Sea and to Yemen

17 Born 570 into a poor family Worked on caravans At 40 years old 610 he went into a cave to pray Muhammad Voice of an angel from God told him there was one God created people, - God would teach his people, told Muhammad he would be Gods messenger

18 Muhammad People who accepted the teachings of Muhammad came to be known as Muslim person who submits Many Arabs prayed at the Kaaba Many people feared Muhammad, they thought he was threatening their old gods and would try to gain political power 622 people invited Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib N of Mecca

19 Muhammad People thought he was a Prophet this movement or hijra the migration 622 year 1 on Muslim calendar Also Yathrib became Medina 630 Muhammad returned to Mecca When he died, 2 years later, Islam spread over the Arabian Peninsula

20 Muslim Beliefs Muezzin calls Muslims to worship 5 times a day Mosque house of worship face Mecca

21 Basic Muslim Beliefs 5 Pillars of Islam

22 Quran The holy book of Islam Contains messages God gave to Muslims Many have memorized it Many have learned Arabic Similar to Torah or Bible Believed in 1 God Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, & Jesus important people in religious history Saw himself as the last prophet in a long line of prophets Muhammad called Jews & Christians people of the book

23 Role of Women Quran taught men & women were spiritually equal Right to inherit property Get an education Could not be forced to marry Get a divorce

24 Split Among Muslims 656 Uthman leader of the Muslim community assassinated Caused a split in Muslim world Disagreed who would be the next leader 2 Groups Shiites (small) Said ruler should be direct descendant of Muhammad Would be inspired by God, like Muhammad should explain meanings of messages received from God

25 Sunnis (large) Split Among Muslims Said any true Muslim an could lead No man should tell what God s message meant Muslim scholars could best explain the Quran Today 85% of Muslims are Sunnis

26 Section 3 Muslim Civilization

27 Islam Spreading 150 years after Muhammad s death Islam spread to: Spain North Africa India China As traders traveled to North Africa & Asia, they took their religion Arab armies conquered new territories

28 Islam Spreading By 732 Arab forces were defeated by European soldiers at the Battle Tours (France) They were able to be successful because Rome, Persia, & Byzantine Empires were not as powerful Under their Rule People practice own religion Have own business Non Muslims: Pay extra tax Not allowed to serve in military

29 Golden Age advances in math, science & literature Muslim leaders caliphs created an empire and made it rich Baghdad, natural center of trade, was capital of Muslim Empire Caliph was Muhammad successor Math Khwarizmi helped create algebra = greater discoveries in astronomy, chemistry, & physics

30 Golden Age Science Philosopher Ibn Sina organized medical knowledge Literature Sufis Muslims who believed they could draw close to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life Sufis missionaries helped spread Islam

31 Ottoman Empire 1258 Mongols killed last caliph Muslim world now controlled by Mongols and Turks Muslim Turks the Ottomans expanded the sultan Ottoman ruler held: Most of Southern Europe North Africa Middle East

32 Ottoman Empire They tolerated the many Christian Groups who lived there = strength 1683 European nations grew stronger = Ottoman Empire began decline

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