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1 BYZANTINE EMPIRE Pg

2 BYZANTINE EMPIRE IN 5 MINUTES OR LESS Bulgaria Turkey (Constantinople) Constantine I built a "new Rome" where the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium used to be. (combination of Roman and Greek culture) 2 nd center of Christianity where is the other? BIG army, LOTS of trade why trade here? Greece Lots of taxes, lots of agriculture, lots of education

3 The empire at its height

4 QUICK VOCAB Literacy Knowing how to read and write Classics Ancient writings by famous Greeks and Romans Homer, Virgil, Plato, Aristotle Split into Roman Catholics and Greek Orthodox Patriarch Male head of the church/government Icons Picture of a sacred religious person, itself considered sacred Schism Separation of a group because of differing beliefs (especially in a Christian church)

5 HOW DOES THE EMPIRE FALL? Any guesses???

6 Here s a hint And here And here Muslims live here

7 HOW DOES THE EMPIRE FALL? Any other guesses??? Persia attacks, Arabs attack, can t take Constantinople (empire prospers again) Turks take over the capitol. Muslims fight Christians.

8 WELCOME TO THE CRUSADES Pg.295

9 Quick Look at a Crusader Pg.298

10 YOUR HOMEWORK FOR TODAY: What were the Crusades and why were they important? (Give more than one reason) (write it on the post-it note and stick it on the end of the table when you leave today)

11 The Crusades Holy Wars Pg

12 LET S SUMMARIZE Jerusalem is captured. Christians are mad. They go to war against the Muslims. (aka- infidels) Wanted to protect borders, And free the Holy Land

13 SNEAK PEEK= your assignment Imagine the Crusades are being turned into a series of movies. You are in charge of designing a movie poster for one of the films. Pick one of the eight crusades (the first four are in your book) and design a poster to match. Use pgs in your book. Include the following somewhere on your poster: Movie rating (G, PG, PG-13, etc.) Actors and their roles Movie summary [should be on the back] This project is due next Friday, January17th

14 THE HOLY WARS There were EIGHT crusades fought to free the holy land. People fighting were called crusaders because they vowed to take up the cross 1 st crusade Went east, then south 30,000 fighters (4,000 knights) Foot soldiers, archers, cooks (women and priests traveled at the back) Peasants came along- why? Free salvation Freedom from feudal lords (no rent!) 1 st Crusade= captures Jerusalem

15 CRUSADER STATES Small outposts run like feudal kingdoms in Europe They chose kings (not much power, as much a feudal lord) Built castles to live in/protect borders

16 2 ND CRUSADE 40 years after the first, lasted 2 years Instead of fighting Muslims, crusaders fought themselves (French and Germans) Meanwhile, Muslims capture more land. 20,000 Christian crusaders camp between mountains (Horns of Hattin) Muslim cavalry surrounds crusaders and sets fire to grass Christian army falls Most foot soldiers are sold into slavery (supply and demand) Muslims retake Jerusalem

17 3 RD CRUSADE- Crusade of Kings Pope dies of grief Successor (Pope Gregory VIII) calls for the 3 rd crusade 3 kings go to battle 70-year old King Frederick drowns in a river; his army returns to Europe. King Richard the lion heart was courageous in battle, but also had severe mood swings (generous one moment, violent the next) King Philip is a skilled politician, not a warrior, but was great at planning sieges Richard and Philip take Acre (a city on the coast). Muslims surrender. Philip heads back home.

18 IT S NOT OVER YET! Richard gets impatient with peace negotiations and executes all 2,700 Muslims in the city. Keep fighting. Then make a 5-year treaty (everyone gets to keep their own cities). Richard goes back to get more money and soldiers.

19 4 TH CRUSADE Soldiers headed east by (Mediterranean) sea instead of on land. Venetian bankers make a deal= free transportation/supplies if the crusaders will share their loot Crusaders head to Constantinople (why is this name familiar???) Burn libraries Destroy churches Stole art, jewels, gold Shipped everything back to Venice to pay off debt

20 OTHER CRUSADES 5 th Christians conquer Egyptian city Damietta, give city back to Muslims in exchange for truce. 6 th Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II gets Jerusalem back. Muslims retake the city less than 20yrs. later (this one is also in your book) 7 th King Louis IX of France goes to battle, gets captured, released after paying a huge ransom. 8 th Louis goes back to war, dies in a plague. Other people try to start up more crusades, but people want to expand westward instead.

21 Your assignment Imagine the Crusades are being turned into a series of movies. You are in charge of designing a movie poster for one of the films. Pick one of the eight crusades (the first four are in your book) and design a poster to match. Use pgs in your book. Include the following somewhere on your poster: Movie rating (G, PG, PG-13, etc.) Actors and their roles (use your book to find names of key people) Movie summary [should be on the back] This project is due next Friday, January17th If you can t think of specific people, talk to me and I ll help you find some.

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