Islam emerges on the scene

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1 Graphic Organizer The prophet Muhammad gains followers as he shares the new religion. He becomes both a political and religious leader. Leaders who follow him were known as caliphs, and their kingdoms were known as caliphates. They had political power but were not prophets. Islam emerges on the scene Since most conquered people were not forced to convert to Islam by the caliphs, the religion of Islam did not spread as fast as the power of the caliphates. The Caliphates developed into a political and military force in the Middle East and conquered a vast territory including parts of Europe and Asia. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 1 of 13

2 Big Idea Card Big Ideas of Lesson 2, Unit 6 A global trend in Era 4 was the continued spread of ideas and people through different forms of human interaction, including trade, travel, and conflict. The development of Islam in this region signaled the arrival of a new world religion that would play an important role in the political and economic shifts in this era and beyond. Islam originated when the prophet Muhammad began spreading a belief system he said was communicated to him by God, or Allah. It developed as a monotheistic and portable religion, sharing common roots with Judaism and Christianity. In this era, Islam and the political-religious states comprising the Muslim community (also known as Caliphates), represented the growing trend of the consolidation of religious and political power in empires and states. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 2 of 13

3 Word Cards 6 caliph a leader of an Islamic state or kingdom, regarded as a successor of Muhammad and by tradition always male. Example: The caliph was responsible for organizing and maintaining the army, but also for keeping order. () 8 pilgrimage a journey to an important place for special reasons; can be to an important religious location for spiritual reasons as an act of devotion Example: The people from the town made a pilgrimage to the birthplace of their patron saint. () 10 convert in religion, to change to or take up a new belief system Example: Many people who had followed polytheistic religions in the Middle East converted to Islam over time. () 7 prophet a person who speaks for God or another deity; one who receives a message from a deity and is told to share it with others Example: The prophet was directed to share the sacred teachings with his people. 9 revelation () in religion, the communication of a truth or important lesson by God to a follower or prophet Example: The monk carefully recorded the revelations the prophet had received. 11 pillar () in architecture, a column that supports a structure; in philosophy or religion, a core principle that is part of the framework of a larger belief system Example: The idea that we should treat other people as we want to be treated is a pillar of several belief systems. () Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 3 of 13

4 12 Shi ite one of the two great religious divisions of Islam that regards Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who succeeded him Example: The Shi ite faction is the majority faction in Iran today. () 13 Sunni the Muslims of the branch of Islam that adheres to the orthodox tradition and acknowledges the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad Example: The majority of Muslims in the world today are Sunnis. () Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 4 of 13

5 Student Handout 1 - Overview of the History of Islam in the Middle East Read the article below. As you read, think about how the geography of the Middle East was important; how Muhammad was an important historical figure; the basic beliefs of Islam; and how the political power of Islamic kingdoms spread over time. You may want to underline important ideas as you read. After reading, complete the exercises on the last page of the handout. The Arabian Peninsula is mostly desert, although there are some more fertile areas on the edges. Archaeologists have found human artifacts there from as far back as 8,000 BCE and think that at one point, the Peninsula was not as dry and was covered with grasslands. The Arabian Peninsula is, in many ways, at the crossroads between Asia and Africa, and the many waterways around it make it an important area for trade and transportation. Look at the map to the left. In the middle of the circle you will see the Arabian Peninsula denoted in yellow, which is the large piece of land that bridges Asia and Africa. The Arabian Peninsula, by definition has water on three sides: the Red Sea on the west side, the Persian Gulf on the east, and the Arabian Sea and connected Indian Ocean to the south. There is also water to the northwest with the Mediterranean Sea. The first people in this region lived where they could raise animals like sheep and goats in areas with enough vegetation. Later on, probably sometime after 1000 BCE, people began to move into new parts of the peninsula thanks to the domestication of the camel. The camel allowed people to travel across large areas of the desert between areas with water (oases). Camels can travel long distances without water and they can carry large loads, including enough water for people, on packs that people strap to their backs. The camel made it possible for people to travel the peninsula for trade and exploration, and opened up a new route between Africa and Asia. As civilizations developed, certain cities on and near the peninsula became important trading centers, and some of the routes of the Silk Roads passed through this region. Turn and Talk: How was geography important in shaping the history of this region? Why and how did people move through and settle in the Arabian Peninsula? Soldiers from this area, who had learned to use camels as cavalry animals, even fought for the Roman and Persian armies at different times. The use of camels for desert warfare allowed people from the Arabian Peninsula to gain control of some parts of the Silk Roads, giving them regional power and access to new products and ideas. People in this region included pastoral nomads as well as farmers and people who lived in the towns. All of these groups interacted and depended on each other in some way. The nomads raised different animals and traded meat, skins, and milk from their animals, while farmers provided grains and other agricultural products. Skilled laborers in towns provided different goods and products. Towns also served as places where trade was carried out and coordinated. Nomads who used camels as their pack animals also served as guides and porters for traders who needed to carry goods across the desert areas. Most people benefitted in some way from these exchanges of goods and services. The trade and movement of people through this area brought new products to the Arabian Peninsula, as well as new ideas. The religions of Judaism and Christianity, which began in the Middle East, were introduced to people in the Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 5 of 13

6 Arabian Peninsula, even though most people in the area were polytheistic until the development of Islam. The religion of Islam was begun by a man named Muhammad who was born on the Arabian Peninsula sometime around 570 CE. Muhammad became recognized as a prophet when he began sharing religious revelations he stated were important messages from God, or Allah in Arabic, around 610 CE. Many people were drawn to him and the revelations, and he developed a large body of followers. Muhammad lived in the city of Makkah (now known as Mecca), which was a caravan stop on an important trade route. This town was also a place of worship associated with the Prophets Abraham and Ishmael, important figures in religious history for both Jews and Christians. Muhammad spent 13 years in Makkah, during which the rulers of the area persecuted him, and then he and many of his followers went to Madinah (Medina) to escape the negative treatment, where he received more revelations. The journey to Madinah took place in 622 CE, and is used as the beginning of the Islamic calendar and is now made as a pilgrimage for Muslims. The revelations of Muhammad were memorized and written down in what became the holy book for Islam, the Qur an, which means the recitation, and which is seen as the word of God by Muslims. The religion founded by Muhammad became known as Islam, and its followers are known as Muslims. There were several years of conflict between the growing Muslim community and other groups in the region at this time, including several battles. Nevertheless, the religion of Islam spread and gained many more followers throughout the region, and Muslims developed a strong sense of identity and community and established a system of beliefs and practices. Muhammad became a political leader as well and developed a government system and army. Islam and its leaders thus became a political force in the region by the time Muhammad died in 632 CE. Turn and Talk: Besides being an important religious figure, what important historical and political role did Muhammad play? Muhammad s political rule was continued by his successors, who were known as Caliphs, leaders of the political and religious kingdom that was known as the Caliphate. These leaders exercised political and military power, but were not seen as prophets or religious leaders on the level of Muhammad. In the 100 years after Muhammad s death, the Caliphate armies gained control of a large area that stretched between North Africa and Central Asia. The Persian Empire was conquered around 651 CE, and much land was taken from the Byzantine Empire as well. During a time called the Umayyad Dynasty, from 661 to 750 CE in which the Caliphs came from the Umayyad family, the Islamic empire even moved into Spain. An internal conflict developed shortly after the death of Mohammad over who would be his successor as Caliph. During the course of this Muslim Civil War, a split developed between the Sunni and Shiite factions, a divide which still exists in the Muslim community up to the present day. Although the Islamic empires controlled lots of territories, this did not mean that everyone in these lands became a Muslim. As a result the spread of the religion of Islam actually happened at a much slower pace than the spread of the political control of the Caliphate empires. The expanding Islamic empire collided with Christian kingdoms to the west in Europe touching off a series of conflicts that would last for over a thousand years. As a religion, Islam shares historical, cultural, and geographic origins with Judaism and Christianity. All three religions are monotheistic, share a belief in one god, and they also share belief in much of the early history of creation as described in the Old Testament of the Bible. They all believe that God gave teachings to the people of the world through different prophets, and that these teachings were written down in their holy books. All three religions believe in moral standards and treating others with kindness. They disagree, however, on some of the prophets and on more specific beliefs and practices. Turn and Talk: Islam became a world religion that had a large impact on this region beyond just spreading a new belief system. How did the Islamic Caliphates play an important historical role in this era? Adapted from: Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 6 of 13

7 Question Answer Relationship Reading Guide Anytime you answer questions from a text, you are answering one of four types of questions. What makes each type of question different is what YOU have to DO to answer the questions. Read about the question types below: Right There: Think and Search: Author and You: On Your Own: Words or sentences right there in the text will answer the question; you just have to find them. Words or sentences in different places in the text will answer the question. You find the answers by pulling ideas from more than one place in the text and combining them. Ideas in the text combined with ideas in your head (things that you know or think) will answer the question. In other words, you use things you already know (or find out if you don t know) along with things you learned from reading to answer the text. Only ideas in your head, things that you think or know, will answer the question, even if they connect or are related to the text. So, you have to think hard about what you already know, or go look for information someplace else, to answer the question. Raphael, T.E. (1984) Use these approaches to answer the questions below on a separate sheet of paper: 1) What is the land of the Arabian Peninsula like? (Right There) 2) Describe a few ways that camels helped to shape the history of this region. (Think and Search) 3) What former empires did the Caliphates overlap with? (Author and You) 4) What are the primary religious duties that Muslims are expected to follow? (On Your Own) 5) About when did the Caliphate armies conquer Persia? (Right There) 6) What were three key events in the spread of Islamic political power? Describe and explain why these events were important. (Think and Search) 7) How is Islam similar to Buddhism as demonstrated by the beliefs and practices of Ashoka, emperor of the Mauryan Empire? (Author and You) 8) What scientific and cultural advances were made in the Islamic caliphates of this time? (On Your Own) Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 7 of 13

8 Summarize your learning about key ideas. For each question below, use your own words to answer the question with important ideas from the text. Topic: Important idea from the reading: How was geography important in the history of Arabia and Islam? What is the historical importance of Muhammad s life, apart from his religious role? What are some of the primary aspects of the religion of Islam? What was the political and historical importance of the Islamic Caliphates? What did they do? Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 8 of 13

9 Question Answer Relationship Reading Guide Teacher Answer Guide Anytime you answer questions from a text, you are answering one of four types of questions. What makes each type of question different is what YOU have to DO to answer the questions. Read about the question types below: Right There: Think and Search: Author and You: Words or sentences right there in the text will answer the question; you just have to find them. Words or sentences in different places in the text will answer the question. You find the answers by pulling ideas from more than one place in the text and combining them. Ideas in the text combined with ideas in your head (things that you know or think) will answer the question. In other words, you use things you already know (or find out if you don t know) along with things you learned from reading to answer the text. On Your Own: Only ideas in your head, things that you think or know, will answer the question, even if they connect or are related to the text. So, you have to think hard about what you already know, or go look for information someplace else, to answer the question Raphael, T.E. (1984) Use these approaches to answer the questions below on a separate sheet of paper: 1) What is the land of the Arabian Peninsula like? (Right There) Desert, with some fertile areas near the edges 2) Describe a few ways that camels helped to shape the history of this region. (Think and Search) Camels allowed people to travel into new regions, they helped with trade across the desert, and they were also used as a cavalry animal and changed warfare. 3) What former empires did the Caliphates overlap with? (Author and You) Different answers possible, including Alexander the Great s, Persia, Rome, Kush. 4) What are the primary religious duties that Muslims are expected to follow? (On Your Own) The five pillars: worship of one god, Allah; regular prayer; charity; fasting at Ramadan; pilgrimage to Mecca at least once if possible 5) About when did the Caliphate armies conquer Persia? (Right There) 651 CE 6) What were three key events in the spread of Islamic political power? Describe and explain why these events were important. (Think and Search) Muhammad s revelations and his work to spread the teachings and gain followers; the conquests of the Caliphs that followed Muhammad; the Umayyad s additional conquests; other events might be listed as well 7) How is Islam similar to Buddhism as demonstrated by the beliefs and practices of Ashoka, emperor of the Mauryan Empire? (Author and You) The ideas of religious tolerance and allowing others the freedom to practice different religions was common to both, even if not always consistently practiced by every leader. 8) What scientific and cultural advances were made in the Islamic caliphates of this time? (On Your Own) Answers will vary, but might include information about advances in medicine, math, astronomy, education, and printing. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 9 of 13

10 Student Handout 2 Islam Basics Part I: Vocabulary Stop and jot Write down what you think each of the following words means. Then take notes on the definitions from the PowerPoint. Word and Pronunciation Islam [iss-laam] What I think it means Definition from the PowerPoint Muslim [MOOS-lim] Allah [al-lah] Mosque [massk] or masjid [MESS-jid] Qur an [kur-ahn] Part II: Five Basic Beliefs of Islam Muslims believe in: 1. One God My notes on the beliefs extra details, something this reminds me of, etc. 2. The prophets 3. The justice of God 4. The Imams (or apostles) of God 5. The Day of Judgment Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 10 of 13

11 My notes on the ways in which Islam is similar to Judaism and Christianity: Part III: Five Pillars of Islam Stop and Jot: What is a pillar? What do you think it means if something is considered a pillar of a religion? The Five Pillars of Islam: The Five Major of Islam 5 Pillars, the Explanation Arabic Words 1. shahada At least once in every Muslim s life, he or she must sincerely recite aloud La ilaha illa Allah wa-muhammad rasul Allah. Translation: There is no god but God and Muhammad is the prophet of God. 2. salat Muslims must pray five times a day, facing towards Mecca. In ONE word, sum up what you think this means 3. zakat Muslims give alms to the poor, and support the local Mosque by donating a portion of their income. 4. Sawm During the Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, all Muslims must not eat during daylight hours, except the very young or sick. 5. hajj If possible financially and physically, each Muslim must travel to the city of Mecca once in a lifetime. Stop & Jot and Turn & Talk: Appeal of Islam Now what we ve covered the basic beliefs and duties of Islam, think about would have been appealing to people about Islam during this era. With a partner, list some of the appealing factors: Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 11 of 13

12 Teacher Reference Guide for Student Handout 2 Islam Basics Part I: Vocabulary Stop and jot Write down what you think each of the following words means. Then take notes on the definitions from the PowerPoint. Word and Pronunciation Islam [iss-laam] Muslim [MOOS-lim] Allah [al-lah] Mosque [massk] or masjid [MESS-jid] Qur an [kur-ahn] What I think it means Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Definition from the PowerPoint The name of the religion founded by Muhammad around 632 CE A follower of Islam. It translates to one who submits to god. Arabic word for god Muslim house of worship Holy Book of Islam Part II: Five Basic Beliefs of Islam Muslims believe in: 1. One God 2. The prophets 3. The justice of God 4. The Imams (or apostles) of God 5. The Day of Judgment My notes on the beliefs extra details, something this reminds me of, etc. Answers will vary. Allah. Same god as the Judeo-Christian version. A god that is immortal, all knowing, present everywhere, and all powerful; shahada Answers will vary. Muhammad and the ones (Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus) before him Answers will vary. God is fair. Answers will vary. Shi ite and Sunni have different views of imams. For Sunni Muslims, imams are worship leaders, but Shi ites believe that imams are chosen by God to be perfect examples for the faithful and to lead all humanity in all aspects of life. Answers will vary. Final assessment of humanity by God. Annihilation of all life, followed by resurrection and judgment Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 12 of 13

13 My notes on the ways in which Islam is similar to Judaism and Christianity: Answers will vary but should include belief in one god (monotheistic) that is immortal, all knowing, all powerful and omnipresent; all trace origins to the biblical Abraham; main message is to live a moral life in accordance with God s law; all are based on holy text Part III: Five Pillars of Islam Stop and Jot: What is a pillar? What do you think it means if something is considered a pillar of a religion? The Five Pillars of Islam: The Five Major Duties or Principles of Islam 5 Pillars, the Explanation Arabic Words 6. shahada At least once in every Muslim s life, he or she must sincerely recite aloud La ilaha illa Allah wa-muhammad rasul Allah. Translation: There is no god but God and Muhammad is the prophet of God. 7. salat Muslims must pray five times a day, facing towards Mecca. 8. zakat Muslims give alms to the poor, and support the local Mosque by donating a portion of their income. 9. Sawm During the Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, all Muslims must not eat during daylight hours, except the very young or sick. 10. hajj If possible financially and physically, each Muslim must travel to the city of Mecca once in a lifetime. In ONE word, sum up what you think this means Confession of faith (more than one word) Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage Stop & Jot and Turn & Talk: Appeal of Islam Now what we ve covered the basic beliefs and duties of Islam, think about would have been appealing to people about Islam during this era. With a partner, list some of the appealing factors: Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Page 13 of 13

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