ISLAMIC CIVILIZATIONS A.D.

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1 ISLAMIC CIVILIZATIONS A.D.

2 ISLAM VOCAB Muhammad the Prophet- the founder of Islam Islam- monotheistic religion meaning submission Muslim- followers of Islam Mecca- holy city to Arab people located in present day Saudi Arabia Medina- Second holiest city in Islam- Muhammad fled after being persecuted in Mecca

3 ISLAM VOCAB Arabian Peninsula - located between African and Asian continents surrounded by the Arabian, Red, and Mediterranean seas-- Where Islam started Allah- Arabic word for God Arabic- language of Arab people Qu ran (koran)- Holy text for Muslims

4 ISLAM VOCAB Five Pillars of Islam - Five basic duties Muslims accept- believed the way to reach salvation Judeo- Christian - refers to shared beliefs by Jews and Christians diffusion- movement from one region to another Sunni- group of Muslims that believe the leader of Islam should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community

5 ISLAM VOCABULARY Shi a - group of Muslims that believe the only successor to Muhammad was through his daughter and son- inlaw Baghdad- city in Iraq that became the capital of the Muslim Empire under the Abassid dynasty because of its location on a major trade route Battle of Tours - Battle in France where Muslim advances into western Europe were stopped Dome of the Rock- most holy site in Jerusalem where many believe Muhammad ascended into heaven

6 ISLAM VOCAB Ali- last successor, or elected official of Islam, who was murdered-- causing the Sunni/ Shia split.

7 ORIGINS OF ISLAM The founder of Islam was Muhammad the Prophet who proclaimed that their was one true God called Allah. The revelation of Muhammad form the basis for Islamic religion, a monotheistic faith Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula emerged as Early Muslim cities

8 SPREAD OF ISLAM Islam spread across Asia and Africa, and into Spain which was the geographic extent of the first Muslim empire Islam united Arab people throughout the Middle East

9 SPREAD OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION Persian Gulf

10 BELIEFS, TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS OF ISLAM Monotheism (Allah, Arabic word for God) Quran (Koran)- Muslims most holy text: The word of God which Muslims believe was spoken to Muhammad. Acceptance of Judeo-Christian prophets, including Moses and Jesus

11 BELIEFS: THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM 1. Declaring One s Faith- There is no god but God 2. Praying five times a day facing Mecca 3. Giving alms (charity) to the poor 4. Fasting (staying away from food and drinks) from sun-up to sun down during the holy month of Ramadan 5. Making a pilgrimage or hajj to Mecca during one s life

12 Hajj

13 GEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCE ON THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Islam was diffused (spread) along trade routes between Mecca and Medina Islam expanded despite great distances, desert environments, and mountain barriers Islam spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia and was built upon from weak Byzantine and Persian empires

14 GEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCE ON THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Expansion continued after Muhammad s death but also spread through trade and travel, not just conquest.

15 ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL FEATURES OF ISLAMIC CIVLIZATION Political unity of the first Muslim Empire was shortlived- (Muslim Empire did not last very long under the same leader) Arabic language spread with Islam and facilitated trade across Islamic lands Slavery was not based on race- Conquered people of war; non- Muslims

16 HISTORICAL TURNING POINTS: INTERNAL CONFLICTS The Death of Ali (last of the four followers of Muhammad) Islam was divided over who should be the rightful leader--- Sunni/ Shi a division which is still present today Sunni Muslims felt that the caliph should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community- viewed him as a leader not a religious authority Shiites (Shi a)- believe that the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad was divinely inspired and should be the leaders of the Muslims.

17 HISTORICAL TURNING POINTS Under the first four caliphs, Muslims expanded and captured cities and provinces including Damascus and Jerusalem. Capital of the Islamic Empire was moved to Baghdad under the Abbasids (ruling family) Muslim advances into western Europe was stopped when Muslims were defeated in France at the Battle of Tours Bagdad later fell to a group from Northwest China --- Mongols

18

19 CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS AND Architecture- Dome of the Rock Jerusalem

20 CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS Mosaics Arabic alphabet Universities Located in Cordoba Spain and Baghdad Linked trade networks throughout the empire Translation of ancient texts (i.e. Greek) into Arabic

21 SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS Arabic numerals (adapted from India) including zero Algebra Medicine-(Established hospitals and medical schools) Expansion of geographic knowledge Improved ships Made wide use of the compass (from China)

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