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1 Chapter 6 Fill-in Notes THE BYZANTINE AND ISLAMIC EMPIRES Overview Roman Empire collapses in the West The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Empire a blending of the and cultures which influenced Russian and Eastern Europe. preserved the variety of Christianity, however influences still plagued the church Jesus taught His disciples that the kingdom of heaven would be like: In the emperor formally dedicated a new capital for the Roman Empire He called the city It became widely known as The Rise of New Rome Fourth & Fifth Centuries: An important commercial, political, and religious center. Western Roman Empire continues to decline and eventually crumbles after constant invasions. Byzantine Empire took its name from ancient Greek city Founded by Greek colonizer named around 650 Inhabitants considered themselves influence More than Roman Reign of Justinian The first of Byzantine history and culture Much success owed to his wife Preservation of Roman laws In 532 a riot broke out in Constantinople, threatening to topple Justinian from power. Justinian decides to flee Theodora Justinian is persuaded by his to stand and fight Revolt is Justinian is firmly established as emperor Justinian (cont d) Initiates extensive program Finest example of Byzantine Left an empire beset by problems: 4

2 5 Organization of the Church followed the pattern of the and divisions of the Roman Empire rather than being based on the of the apostles preserved in the. Divisions Eastern and Western Churches Separate When Constantine founded New Rome he established a new center as well as a capital Constantine desired Constantinople to become the Christianity becomes the religion Constantinople became one of the five cities Bishop of became religious leader in the Patriarch of became religious leader in the Church Rivalry (archbishop of ) claims authority over churches previously under authority Patriarch and leaders of Byzantine church disagree Pope patriarch Patriarch pope Byzantine church leaders refuse to acknowledge bishop of Rome s claim of Church Rivalry Western Church incorporated into the Christian faith some of the of ancient Rome and the Germanic tribes and strongly influenced the Eastern Church. Empire Under Siege After Justinian s reign in the 6 th century, the empire was on almost every side for hundreds of years. West : a tribe North and East Byzantines able to stave off invaders from the Arabian Peninsula Between Byzantine Empire recovers former strength & prosperity Basil II Known as the Crushed the Bulgars in the region New Obstacles Venice becomes rival Battle of Byzantine army defeated Seljuk Turks Emerged as a powerful force in the. Originally nomadic tribes from Adopted culture and the religion. In they annihilated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert. Asia Minor now under control of the Byzantine emperor appealed to the in the for aid. The West responds by sending several known as the to free the East especially from Muslim invaders. An Unholy Crusade

3 In 1204 an invading army breached the defenses of Constantinople. The invaders slaughter inhabitants and the Hagia Sophia. The invaders are not Muslims, but hired by to destroy their commercial rivals. Byzantine forces recapture, but the empire never fully recovered. The Byzantine Empire comes to an end in when a new wave of Muslim invaders, the, sacked Constantinople and kill its emperor Byzantine Contributions Cyril and Methodius to the peoples of Russia and southeastern Europe Developed written language ( ) for them. The Meaning of Icons A work of art, most commonly a, from Eastern Orthodox Christianity Beliefs: One should not at icons. The viewer should direct his beyond the icon to the it represents. The icon is seen as a means of achieving a with the person depicted and the heavenly realm. The Meaning of Icons 1.There are no because the shadows imply something and. 2.Historical scenes that occurred a building are often shown with the building in the background in an attempt to give it meaning. 3.Figures in icons are portrayed with very thin, small, and large. Early Russia Many different and backgrounds largest group Varangians invaders who settled along inland waterways The Varangians collected from the who lived near their trade routes. The Varangians often demanded as tribute: our English word comes from the word. Varangian warrior who gained control of about 862 Beginning of of Islam: Ishmael Genesis 17:20 Muhammad Name means Born in in Claimed to be the and of the of the god. His teaching became the basis for Followers known as Orphaned at age 6 & reared by & Married his who was a. 6

4 7 Influenced by and monotheism as he traveled with caravans. was in Arabia. The of Allah At age 40 Muhammad claimed to have received a in which the angel gave him a. This was the beginning of a he supposedly received throughout his lifetime. He began preaching there was only one god,, and that he,, was his. Mecca Muhammad had little success in gaining at first. Early followers were People of Mecca him, viewing his teachings as to the city s interests. Mecca was a leading, situated at the of trade routs in western Arabia. Flight to Medina Muhammad was for preaching there was only. In he and his followers fled to. - In AD, Muhammad and a group of 1,400 Muslims marched towards Mecca, in an attempt to perform ( ) Intercepted by the Tribe and forced to sign a. Muhammad & his followers were humiliated Treaty of. Conquering Mecca Within, Muhammad s army increases to. Muhammad gains & power in Medina and returns to conquer Mecca in 630 The god Kaaba A that housed of pagan idols ( ) Center of worship Principal attraction: The a built into the wall of the Kaaba. The Black Stone The attraction According to later Muslim tradition, the angel sent the stone to, who, along with his son, built the. The Koran (Qur an) believe the archangel Gabriel revealed the of to Muhammad through. Basis of his Followers or his teachings Teachings eventually compiled into a, the The Five Pillars of Islam 1. : There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet. 2. : every Muslim must pray five times a day while facing Mecca 3. : alms (money) to be given to the poor

5 8 4. : a required fast during 5. : pilgrimage to Spread of Islam Muhammad dies without appointing a Closest friends chose first four successors called (first caliph) initiated a policy of Arab warriors conquer,,,, and Each conquest viewed as a / Split Shia Islam: Focuses on and Shiite Supreme Imam is believed to be of tradition and law Sunni Islam: Leadership consists of and who may offer non-binding opinions Umayyad Calipahte ( ) In a Muslim general seized the office of caliph (the caliphate). He moved the political capital of the empire from to and established the rule of the. Ended the practice of selecting the caliph from among the and of Muhammad. Expansion continued until they were stopped by the at the Abbasid Caliphate ( ) over Umayyad rule mounted. Muslims were treated as citizens by Arab rulers. Umayyads not considered to Muhammad. In, a descendant of Muhammad s uncle, overthrew the Umayyad caliph and founded the caliphate. Arab increasingly declined and increased. Turks and the Crusades The had been the in the early spread of Islam. Political unity began to under the Abbasid dynasty. The entered the weakened territory, embraced, and began a new wave of much of former Arab empire and took control of. were launched to free the birthplace of from the Muslim Turks. Medicine Known for his work with Known for his work with Both men wrote many in which they recorded their practical experience in identifying and treating various diseases. Omar Khayyam

6 9 Rubaiyat (a poem with verses of four lines) Mathematics Muslims borrowed much of their basic from. Arabic numerals are of origin. Muslims studied and improved,, and.

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