Chapter 9 1. Explain why Islam is considered more than a religion, but rather a way of life?

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1 Chapters 9-18 Study Guide Review Chapter 9 1. Explain why Islam is considered more than a religion, but rather a way of life? The Quran and the Sunnah guide Muslims on how to live their lives. 2. What is the Qur an? Written word of God given to Muhammad during his lifetime. 3. What is the Sunnah? The example that Muhammad set for Muslims during his lifetime. 4. What is Jihad? Jihad means to strive. Jihad means to overcome difficulties and do what is pleasing to God. 5. What are the Five Pillars of Islam? Profession of Faith (Shahadah) Ritual Prayer (Salat) Giving Alms (zakat) Fasting (siyam) Hajj or Pilgrimage (hajj) Chapter In what two ways are Arabs united? Language Culture 7. What three cities became centers of Islamic influence? Cordoba, Spain Baghdad, Iraq Cairo, Egypt

2 8. What is calligraphy? The art of beautiful handwriting 9. Why did Muslims reject the use of humans or animals in their artwork? Only God, they said, can create something that is alive. Chapter Why did monarchs power increase because of the crusades? Nobles and knights left home to fight in the Middle East 12. Describe the impact the crusades had on the jews. The Jews were continually persecuted by the Christians during all of the Crusades. 13. List 2 causes of the crusades 1. The emperor of Constantinople got nervous because the Seljuk Turks were advancing towards Constantinople and would possibly take it over. The emperor asked Pope Urban II for help. 2. Pope Urban II wanted to push the Muslims back and reclaim Jerusalem. He promised entry to heaven to all who joined to fight. 14. What was one reason that led to the crusades? The Muslims took the Holy Land away from the Christians. 15. What happened to the Christians after the Seljuk Turks took over the Holy Land? Christians could no longer visit the Holy Land safely. 16. Who was the Christian ruler that fought against Saladin during the Crusades?

3 King Richard I (also known as the Richard the Lion heart.) Chapter How did the geography of West Africa influence trade? People from different vegetation zones traded with each other for the goods they needed. 18. How did the advances in iron tools contribute to the population growth in West Africa? Advances in iron tools created an abundant food supply. 19. What was one economic effect of the four vegetation zones in West Africa? People from different areas or zones traded with one another. 20. What technological advancement improved farming in West Africa? Iron tools 21. List from smallest to largest, the four types of settlements in West Africa. Family based homes (extended families) Villages Towns kingdoms

4 22. How did Islam get to West Africa? Trade Chapter Describe Ghana s control of trans-saharan trade. Because of Ghana s location, traders had to pass through Ghana. They had to pay a heavy tax on the goods they traded. 24. People from the southern forests, traded to get what necessary resource? Salt 25. Trans-Saharan trade improved when these were first used? Camels 26. People north of the Sahara traded with people of the southern forests. What were two items they traded? Salt and gold 27. The Wangarans from the southern forests traded silently, why? They didn t want anyone else to know where their gold mines were located. Chapter List three ways Islam changed African government. 1. The right to rule passed from father to son. (patrilineal) 2. Africans started to exercise more control of local rulers (centralized government) 3. Adoption of Shari ah (Islamic law)

5 29. How did West Africans adapt Islam into their culture architecturally? They built mosques. Chapter What is the function of oral tradition? To preserve (keep) history 31. Find a proverb that expresses the importance of oral tradition. Every time an old man dies, it is as if a library has burnt down. Chapter How was the fall of the Han Dynasty similar to the fall of the Roman Empire? Just like Rome, China broke up into separate kingdoms. 33. How did the Han and Tang Dynasties select government officials? People who wanted government positions took civil service exams. 34. Who allowed the lower class to become government officials? Song Dynasty 35. Why were scientists, mathematicians, and engineers not government officials? The civil service exams didn t test science, math, or engineering.

6 Chapter What caused wealthy farmers from northern China to move south? Attacks by the Mongols caused the northern farmers to move south. 37. What had to happen in order for China s population to grow? Stable (steady) food supply 38. What improvements in water transportation improved commerce? A vast network of rivers and canals connected different parts of China. Chapter Describe the impact the magnetic compass had on travel. The magnetic compass made long distance travel at sea easier. 40. Describe how the Chinese mass produced porcelain. Each person performed a different task over and over. For instance: one washed the clay, one applied the glaze, one shaped the bowl, and one operated the kiln. 41. What did the Chinese discover while experimenting with saltpeter? Gunpowder

7 42. Name 4 inventions that developed in China and spread to Europe. 1. paper making 2. playing cards 3. movable type 4. mechanical clocks 43. List 3 ways the Chinese prevented the spread of contagious diseases. 1. disinfectants 2. inoculations 3. steaming clothes Miscellaneous 44. List three things that are typical of a golden age. 1. Peace (no war) 2. Prosperity (money was available) 3. Art and literature flourished 45. Label the hierarchy of the European feudal society Monarchs Lords Knights Peasants

8 46. Label the hierarchy of the Japanese feudal society Shogun Daimyo Samurai Peasants 47. In studying history, how might historians describe the following terms? Military warfare/army for protection Economy money based economy Geography layout of area Religion beliefs of a culture Politics government of culture Social/cultural - how people live in a culture. 48. In what areas were these cities important to trade & learning: 1. Timbuktu Africa 2. Cordoba Spain 3. Baghdad Middle East (now Iraq) 4. Kyoto - Japan 49. Why was Zheng He an important Chinese explorer? He brought new ideas and products to China. However, his explorations were over when the Ming Dynasty closed their trading doors with the outside world.

9 50. Describe the requirements needed for an Islamic ruler according to Sunni and Shiites? 1. Sunni ~ They believe that the best person for the job should be the next ruler of the Islamic Empire regardless of the blood line. 2. Shiite ~ They believe that only Muhammad s blood relatives should be the next ruler of the Islamic Empire. 51. Who was the founder of the Islamic religion? When and where was he born? Muhammad started the religion about 610 ce. He was born in Mecca and he was born around 570 ce. He died in the year 632 ce. Geography 52. What Continent is located south of Europe? Africa 53. What continents surround the Arabian peninsula? Asia, Europe and Africa 54. In what city was Muhammad born? Makkah (Mecca) 55. What body of water did Arab traders cross to reach Europe? Mediterranean Sea 56. Which ocean borders Africa on the West? Atlantic Ocean 57. Which ocean borders Africa on the east? Indian Ocean

10 58. What sea borders Africa on the north? Mediterranean Sea 59. What LARGE desert is located in Africa? SAHARA DESERT 60. What city was an important center of trade and learning for the kingdoms of Mali and Songhai? TIMBUKTU 61. What large country is separated from china by the Himalayas? INDIA 62. What country north of china is located nearest the Huang He? MONGOLIA

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