The Arabian Peninsula. Farming limited in Arabia Commerce lively Mecca, near Red Sea, most important of coastal towns

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1 The Rise of Islam

2 The Arabian Peninsula Farming limited in Arabia Commerce lively Mecca, near Red Sea, most important of coastal towns

3 Middle East: Climate Regions

4 Fresh Groundwater Sources

5 Mountain Ranges Caucasus Mts. Atlas Mts. Zagros Mts.

6

7 Middle East: Population Density

8 People of the Arabian Peninsula Semitic People like Jews, Egyptians, Syrians Tradition Son of Abraham Roman Times Bedouin Tribes, live in desert, isolated, tribal, polytheistic Revered Black Meteorite

9 Early Religious Function The Kaaba, cube-shaped structure, at heart of Mecca 500s, already ancient, considered sacred Possible meteorite Idols of local gods inside Site drew religious pilgrims

10 Muhammad ( AD) Married wealthy widow, managed trade in area Received message from Angel Gabriel Driven from Mecca in 622 (1 st day of Muslim calendar)

11 Muhammad s Faith Had always been religious man Took frequent spiritual retreats Muhammad disturbed by visitation After more visits from angel, Muhammad concluded God had chosen him to be prophet

12 Messages Allah = one and only true and all-powerful God Other messages, instructions on how to live to please Allah, live in paradise Public Preaching Muhammad originally told few about experiences Began to preach in public after about three years, attracted many followers

13 Safety Jeopardized Many disliked Muhammad s criticisms Only protection of uncle (Clan Leader) kept him safe After uncle s death Muhammad knew he and followers not safe in Mecca

14 Hegira 622, Muhammad moved to Medina, the Prophet s City ; Journey known as hegira Muslims mark year of hegira as first year of Islamic calendar Building Faith Muhammad built community of fellow believers Called faith Islam, meaning achieving peace through submission to God Followers known as Muslims

15 Return to Mecca Conflict arose Muhammad vs. Tribal Leaders Fighting erupted 630, Muhammad controlled Mecca, influence unmatched He would die 2 years later in 632

16 Beliefs of Islam Quran (Koran) Five Pillars Law Governs

17 The Quran: Holy Book Of Islam

18 Values: Honor parents Be kind to neighbors Protect widows and orphans Give to the poor Forbids: Gambling Pork Alcohol The Quran Condemns: Murder Stealing Lying Adultery Regulates: Marriage Divorce Inheritance Business

19 Five Pillars of Islam One God whose name is Allah, Muhammad is his prophet Prayer 5 times daily, facing Mecca Fasting during month of Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) Give alms to the Poor

20 Pilgrims On The Road to And Camped Outside of Mecca P i l

21 Al-Haram Mosque Holds the Kaaba

22

23 Sunna and Sharia Sunna, tradition, provides guidance in personal relationships, business Sharia, reflects various rules by which Muslims should live, rule of law directly from Qur an

24 Creation of Arab Empire Difficult finding leadership after Muhammad s death Abu Bakr = Muhammad s father-in-law was chosen to be successor/ called caliph = successor to Muhammad Bakr & Muhammad spread movement of Islam Jihad = struggle in way of god By 650 Egypt, Syria, & Persian empire were part of Arab empire

25 Arab Empire Tribal Connection of Caliph First 2 caliphs after Abu Bakr were killed In 656 Muhammad s son-in-law, Ali, became caliph but was assassinated 5 years later

26 Umayyad Dynasty In 661, general Mu awiyah became caliph/ was rival of Ali Capital to Damascus Caliph = hereditary Arabs conquered North Africa and Spain Battle of Tours ended European expansion Charles Martel

27

28 Classes in the Islamic World Caliph and Ruling Arab Muslims Converts Dhimmis Protected Peoples : Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians Slaves

29

30 Umayyad Dynasty In 717, Muslims attacked Constantinople Revolt - Caliphate Led by Hussein, son of Ali Most of his followers defected Islamic Split: Shia (Hussein) & Sunni Split continues today.(most Muslims are Sunnis)

31 Abbasid Dynasty In 750, Abu al-abbas overthrew the Umayyad dynasty & founded Abbasid In 762, New capital at Baghdad Harun al-rashid led dynasty through golden age Baghdad became center of a huge trade empire

32 Seljuk Turks & Crusades Fatimid Dynasty became center of Islamic civilization = important because it was located on Nile river = Cairo Seljuk Turks 1100 s Nomads from central Asia, converted to Islam Took over much of Middle East Turks took over Jerusalem, Byzantine empire turned west for help

33

34 Crusades Byzantine emperor Alexius I Pope Urban II Series of 9 Crusades Crusaders put Muslims on defensive first Saladin Power in 1169 Took Christians 1187, Saladin s army Victorious Crusaders at Constantinople Main effect of Crusades = centuries of mistrust between Muslims & Christians

35 Saladin

36

37 The Ottomans Est , Constantinople conquered Istanbul. Influence of Islam and Mongols Establish Ottoman Empire until 1923 Taxes Suleiman the Magnificent

38

I. The Rise of Islam. A. Arabs come from the Arabian Peninsula. Most early Arabs were polytheistic. They recognized a god named Allah and other gods.

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