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1 Capital = Constantinople Continued as the New ROME Kings saw themselves to still be considered ROMAN emperors

2 Constantinople Survived because it was far away from the Germanic tribe invasions It was the crossroads of trade so it was successful Preserved Greco- Roman culture

3 Justinian Justinian was a serious emperor who worked from dawn to midnight He helped rebuild and re-conquer Rome Had ABSOLUTE POWER = controlled both government and church

4 Byzantine Under Justinian He wanted a re-conquest of the Roman territories that were lost through Germanic invasions

5 Justinian s Accomplishments Sent Best general Belisarius to take North Africa from the Vandals 2 Years later Belisarius took Rome back from the Ostrogoths Justinian won back nearly all the territory Rome used to rule.

6 Justinian Code Justinian set up a panel of legal experts to look through 400 years of Roman law. Some laws were outdated Justinian wanted to create a single, uniform code This became known as the Justinian Code that was used for 900 years after his death

7 Justinian Expands Trade The main street that ran through Constantinople was called the MESE which means Middle Way It ran from the imperial palace to the outer walls

8 Justinian Expands Trade There was a giant open-air market where shoppers could buy Tin from England Wine from France Cork from Spain Ivory and gold from Africa

9 Byzantium Preserves Learning Families valued education Sent children to monastic or public schools Hired private tutors Greek and Latin grammar, philosophy and rhetoric They preserved Greek and Roman great works

10 Justinian s Building Program Launched the most ambitious public building program the Roman world had ever seen. City protected by a deep moat, and three walls that were 25 feet thick City coast was surrounded by a 14-mile stone wall

11 The Hagia Sophia Justinians most splendid building Christian church later taken by the Muslims

12 I. The Eastern Orthodox Church: A. Created after the Schism (split) of 1054: permanent split between Roman Catholic Church B. Differences with the west: 1. No Pope in Eastern Orthodox Church 2. Byzantine priest could marry. 3. Greek, not Latin was the language of the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire C. Effect of Byzantine Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church 1. Greatly influenced Russia a. Russians became Eastern Orthodox Christians b. Russia adopted Cyrillic Alphabet from Eastern Orthodox Priests Place an R.C. for Roman Catholic over the Roman Catholic part of Europe Place an E.O. over the Eastern Orthodox part of Europe

13 Name: Thursday 12/16/10 Aim: What are Islam s Five Pillars of Faith? Do Now: Why do you think Islam and Christianity are the two largest religions in the world? I. The Religion of Islam: A. The founder of Islam is Muhammad. He was born in Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula in about 570 A.D.. B. When he was about 40: he experienced a revelation (vision) 1. He was told by an angel that although God had spoken to Abraham, Moses and Jesus, God had not yet fully revealed himself. 2. God would make Mohammed his messenger and Mohammed would spread the true word of God C. Mohammed encouraged the people of Mecca to give up their false gods and commit to belief in the one true God. The word for God in Arabic is Allah. D. The People of Mecca did not at first believe Muhammad chased him out of the City. Mohammed and his followers fled from Mecca to the city of Medina in fear of their lives. E. Eventually, the people of Mecca believed Mohammed was the messenger of God and d Mohammed returned to the city. Mohammed destroyed the statues of the other gods that were housed in the Kabba. The Kabba in Mecca became the holiest place in the Islamic religion. F. An important story in Islam is Muhammed traveling from Mecca to Jerusalem by winged horse to Jerusalem in one night. Question: Which two religions is Islam related to? Question: Based on the notes, what are the three holy cities of Islam? Question: In what ways is Islam more like Christianity than Judaism? I. Five Pillars of Islam A. All Muslims carry out the following duties: 1. Faith: No god but Allah; and Muhammad is his prophet 2. Prayer: pray 5 times a day facing Mecca 3. Almsgiving: give to the poor percentage of income to charity 4. Fasting: during the month of Ramadan; no eating and drinking for sunrise to sunset 5. Pilgrimage (hajj): travel to Mecca at least once in their life if they can afford it. II. Islam as a way of Life A. Obey five pillars B. Mosque: place of prayers for Muslims B. The Quran (Koran): Holy book and guide for living. 1. Written in Arabic believed to contain God s word as revealed to Muhammad. 2. Final authority on matters of faith and lifestyle. Question: Which of the Five Pillars of Islam do you think is most difficult to follow?

14 Name: Monday 1/3/11 Aim: What were the major contributions of the Abbassid Empire? Do Now: Who was the founder of Islam? What is the name of the holy book of Islam? What are the three holiest cities in Islam? List the five pillars of Islam: I. The Spread of Islam A. Islamic leaders who ruled after Muhammad s death were called caliphs B. The Rightly Guided Caliphs 1. the first 4 caliphs were close friends or relatives of Muhammad Question. What is a dynasty? C. Umayyad Dynasty ruling family that created an Islamic Empire 1. Spread Islam 2. Caused a schism (split) in Islam. 3. Religious Sect: separate part of one religion 4. Two Sects in Islam a) Sunni- those who believe any devout (religious) Muslim could be caliph b) Shiite- believed only descendants of Muhammad should be caliph Q. What are the two religious sects in Christianity that we have studied? I. Golden Age of Islam: A. Golden Age of Islam was during the Abbasid dynasty s A.D./C.E. B. gained knowledge/wealth through trade & wars 1. Muslims learned from Byzantine, Indian, & Persian influences II. Reasons For Growth of Islam A. Byzantine & Persian Empires were weakened by ongoing wars B. Arab-Muslims were highly skilled traders & warriors C. conquered people were treated fairly- could pay tax instead of converting I. Achievements of the Abbasid Dynasty A. Medicine & Chemistry 1. Comprehensive Medical Encyclopedia written by Al-Razi B. Astronomy & Geography 1. invented astrolabe - determines positions of stars & movements of planets (used by sailors/travelers) C. Mathematics- simplified algebra & invented trigonometry D. Art & Architecture 1. arabesques- calligraphy entwined w/ flowers (Persian Rugs) 2. built beautiful mosques (place of worship) E. Literature: Arabian Nights

15 2/9 Aim: How was Europe organized during the Middle Ages? Do Now: While China, India, The Byzantines, and the Islamic Empires were experiencing a golden age, what was going on in Western Europe? For review, briefly describe what happened to western Europe at the end of the Roman Empire. What do you think a dark age is?

16 The Middle Ages Defined After the fall of Rome, Western Europe entered a period known as the Middle Ages, also known as The Medieval Period, which lasted from A.D. The Middle Ages or Medieval Period B.C 476 A.D The Roman Empire The Renaissance (Rebirth) Begins around 1400

17 The Middle Ages Defined In general, the Middle Ages are defined by a lack of central government, decline of trade, population shift to rural areas, decrease in learning, and a rise in the power of The Roman Catholic Church.

18 The Rise of Feudalism Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe The Problem: You are one of many kings ruling various kingdoms in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. You are also the proud owner of large landholdings in your area. However, you are struggling to control the nobles in your kingdom who are fighting each other to expand their landholdings and increase their power (in turn, threatening yours). In addition, you are concerned about increasing barbarian attacks from the east. What can you do to create structure in your kingdom and ensure order? Your Solution:

19 The Rise of Feudalism Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe Oath of loyalty/military support Loyalty/milit ary King Vassal (Lord) Knights Grant Fief (land) Shelter/food Labor, rent Serfs and Peasants (90% of population) Shelter/foo d And protection

20 The Rise of Feudalism Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe Causes of Feudalism: After the fall of Rome, Western Europe was a scary place! With no strong, central government to raise a large army, there was no protection from invaders. The Feudal system emerged as a means to create social/political order and stability in society was well as to provide a system of protection The Role of Serfs: They were bound to the land. In other words, slaves. No social mobility! Your place in this feudal pyramid was determined by birth!

21 The Manor System The Medieval Economic System Sometimes the manor system is referred to as manorialism. The manor was completely self sufficient meaning that everything that was needed was on the manor. Very little reason to leave or travel

22 The Manor System The Medieval Economic System The self sufficient manor contributed to the decline of learning. No new ideas were exchanged. Technology was slow to progress. Little use of money. Wealth based on land.

23 Name: Aim: How did the Roman Catholic in the Middle Ages help and control Western Europe? Do Now: read the quote and answer the question Just as the moon gets her light from the sun, and is inferior to the sun, so the king get his power from the papal (pope s) authority. - Pope Innocent III (1198 C.E.) 1. According to the quote, why does a king need the pope? I. Importance of the Catholic Church in Western Europe During the Middle Ages A. Most of Western Europe was Catholic during Middle Ages B. People believed that the Catholic Church determined who went to heaven and who went to hell C. Seven Sacraments: seven important ceremonies that determine who can get into heaven. 1.Examples: Baptism, Communion, Confirmation, Confession 2. Without a priest, the sacraments can not be performed D. those who broke church law were punished: 1) excommunication- being cut off from the Church/sacraments II. Culture of the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages: A. Art & Architecture- large churches demonstrated the power of the Church 1. Gothic: a style of architecture where large churches would be built (see below) 2. stained glass windows told stories from Bible- to the illiterate III. Roman Catholic Church in Conflict with Royal Power (The Kings) A. Lay Investiture: Kings appointed church officials that resided in their territories. Question: Why would a king want to appoint the church officials that reside in his territories? B. Pope bans Lay Investiture. C. King orders pope to resign Question: What can the Pope do to the King? D. Pope excommunicates Emperor Question: Why will the king s kingdom be in danger if the king is excommunicated? F. Concordat of Worms (concordat = agreement; Worms = city in Germany) 1. Pope appoints church officials How does the Gothic style of architecture displayed in this church demonstrate the power of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages?

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