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1 Mk 2018 The Rise of the Arab Islamic Empire 622AD

2 610AD The Arabian Peninsula: Muhammad, age 40 has visions and revelations he claimed came from God. These revelations were written down by friends. Birth of Islam AD These writings become the Islamic holy text called the Quran. Nobody knows exactly what Muhammad looked like. Over the centuries he has been represented in Islamic art. Some sects of Islam do not believe any physical likeness of Muhammad should be portrayed.

3 Uniting the Arabs Mohammad preached his new belief in the trading city of Mecca. The local authorities persecuted Mohammad and his followers. Eventually they were driven from the city AD Mecca was an important trading center for different tribes. It was a place where any tribe could come to buy and sell their goods. In a series of battles, ( AD) Mohammad and his followers conquered Mecca in 630. In the 600 s AD. The Arabian Peninsula was filled with different nomadic tribes.

4 From 630 until his death in 632, Muhammad united most of the tribes in Arabia by converting them to Islam, the belief in one god. Uniting the Arabs AD Islam spread quickly through Arabia for two reasons: 1. It brought a sense of unity to the scattered nomadic tribes living in the region. Islam at the time of Muhammad s death. 2. The united tribes posed an unbeatable, numerically superior military force that individual tribes could not defend against.

5 In 633 Muhammad died. The Muslim community disagreed over who would succeed Mohammad as the leader of the Muslims. This causes the split into two branches of Islam, Sunni and Shia. Division & Expansion AD The recognized successor was called a Caliph. By 638, Arabic Muslims had conquered Northern Arabia including present day Syria, Israel, Lebanon and Iraq. ARABIAN PENINSULA The tomb of Muhammad

6 Expansion 633 1,450 AD Arabic Islamic expansion outside of the Arabian Peninsula followed two main forms: 1. Military conquest 2. Conversion to Islam: through contact with traders and merchants, through incentives such as eliminating the chance of enslavement or release from paying a tax for not being a believer.

7 Expansion AD 641 Arab Muslims enter Egypt and defeat the Byzantine army. Muslims considered this conquest a liberation. N O R T H A F R I C A 655 Islam begins to spread into North Africa mostly by military conflict.

8 Expansion AD E U R O P E Muslims cross from North Africa into a weak Arab Islamic armies are defeated by the French and disorganized Spain at the battle of Potiers, France. (by Charlemagne) This halts Islam's spread into Western Europe for 1200 years.

9 Expansion AD I N D I A 711 Arabs push into Western India beginning almost 1,800 years of persecution of native Hindus. Arab influence continued to push farther east into India through trade.

10 The Golden Age AD The Arab Islamic Empire reached a period of impressive cultural, scientific and literary excellence. Their achievements rivaled those of China and far eclipsed medieval Europe. Mathematics * Zero * Algebra * Geometry * Trigonometry * Calculus Physical Science * Astron0omy * Physics * Chemistry * Biology

11 The Golden Age AD Medicine * Hospitals * Pharmacies * Surgery * Triage * Medical isolation Finance & Trade * Banking * Checks * Arabic numbers

12 The Golden Age AD Architecture

13 The Golden Age AD

14 The Golden Age AD ART

15 The Golden Age Literature The Arabs invented paper as we know it today. They printed and distributed knowledge and had large libraries of Arab, Chinese, Indian and European writings. Books and paper helped to diffuse knowledge across the Empire AD Making paper

16 The Golden Age AD Cordoba Spain Captured by the Arabs in 711AD is became known as the Bright light in an otherwise dark continent.

17 The End 1258AD In 1258 an invasion from the East resulted in the destruction of Arabic libraries, universities and the hospitals. The Arabic Islamic Empire was conquered by the Mongols from Asia. Although the Mongols converted to Islam, their focus was on trade and not research/education. Mongols capture Baghdad Expansion continued in East and West Africa but the Golden Days were over.

18 Fin

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