What did we just learn? Let s Review

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1 What did we just learn? Let s Review

2 Key Features of the Renaissance rise of humanism ( focus on ancient Greek and Roman civilization and the dignity and worth of the individual). independence and individualism of persons and states. decreased political and social influence of the Roman Catholic Church, though strong popular religious fervor decreased specialization - encouragement of upper and middle classes to be educated in various arts and science spirit of innovation, curiosity, and openness to new experiences yielded advances in the arts and sciences

3 Assessment He greatly impacted politics by asserting that leaders should rule according to the needs of the state rather than simply relying on what is considered ethical or moral. a. b. c. d. Martin Luther Erasmus Machiavelli Leonardo da Vinci Martin Luther and John Calvin were both regarded as key leaders of the a. Renaissance b. Protestant Reformation c. Counter Reformation d. Humanist movement.

4 Assessment The city of Florence was most influential during a. The Reformation b. WWII c. the French Revolution d. the Renaissance He challenged the selling of indulgences. Eventually, his teaching led to a religious movement known as the Protestant Reformation. Who was he? a. John Calvin b. Martin Luther c. King Henry VIII d. Ignatius Loyola

5 Assessment Which of the following inventions most impacted Europe by allowing new ideas to spread more quickly? a. The cotton gin b. the printing press c. the astrolabe d. the telescope A man who is a gifted architect, inventor, mathematician, and poet could be described as a a. Machiavellian b. Totalitarian c. Renaissance Man d. Humanist

6 Assessment Petrarch, Dante, and Erasmus are all remembered for their contribution to a. The Reformation b. the Counter Reformation c. the Enlightenment d. Humanism

7 SSWH13 Examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the worldview of Europeans from the sixteenth century CE/AD to the late eighteenth century CE/AD.

8 SSWH13 A Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view.

9 Old Scientific World Views Greek philosophers, Aristotle and Ptolemy, started the idea that the Earth was the center of the universe. (Geocentric Theory) Geocentric Theory - meant that the Earth was an unmoving object at the center of the universe and the sun and planets moved around the Earth. Religion influenced world views as well. Christianity taught that God had placed Earth at the center of the universe.

10 Old Scientific World Views Science was called natural philosophy Science mixed with moral philosophy, theology, numerology, alchemy & magic Ancient Greek sources highly trusted Few experiments were performed

11 What is the Scientific Revolution? The era when new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of superstitions and beliefs.

12 Reasons for the Scientific Revolution Renaissance Age of Exploration New lands New people Ancient & Medieval works translated into Latin then eventually vernacular languages Easier to understand and learn New inventions & institutions that promoted the sharing of knowledge

13 What is the Scientific Revolution? From 1542 to 1700 The Scientific Revolution changed the way Europeans looked at the world. Development of new ways to study the universe Old authorities no longer blindly accepted Saw the application of mathematics to the natural world Creation and spread of new ideas and discoveries

14 What is the Scientific Revolution? People began to make conclusions based on experimentation and observation, instead of merely accepting traditional ideas.

15 Nicolaus Copernicus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer and mathematician His book was entitled On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies. Introduced the Heliocentric theory in which the stars, Earth, and other planets revolve around the sun Credited with starting the Scientific Revolution

16 Nicolaus Copernicus Copernicus came to these conclusions using mathematical formulas. The Copernican conception of the universe marked the start of modern science and astronomy. Fearing ridicule, he did not publish his findings until 1543, the last year of his life.

17 Nicolaus Copernicus Most scholars rejected his theory because it went against Ptolemy, the Church, and because it called for the Earth to rotate on its axis. Felt that if Ptolemy s reasoning about the planets was wrong, then the whole system of human knowledge could be wrong. Future scientist would build on the foundations that he laid.

18 Johannes Kepler German astronomer and mathematician Used math to show how the planets traveled Planetary Orbits: planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of the widely believed circular path Supported Copernicus s idea of heliocentrism. Concluded that mathematical laws govern planetary motion.

19 Johannes Kepler Showed that Copernicus s basic ideas were true and could be proved by using math. Kepler s finding help explain the paths followed by man-made satellites today.

20 Galileo Galilei Galileo was an Italian scientist who supported Copernicus heliocentric ideas He built upon the work started by Copernicus and Kepler Built the first telescope and used it to study the heavens. Said that the earth s moon had rough, uneven surface. Published a small book called the Starry Messenger.

21 Galileo Galilei Discovered four moons around Jupiter and that the Earth s moon s surface was rough Galileo also said that objects fall at the same speed regardless of weight His teachings came into conflict with the church and other scholars. Other scholars didn t approve of his work because it contradicted Ptolemy.

22 Galileo vs. the Church The Church fought against Galileo s ideas because they challenged what the church taught He was summoned to appear before the Pope Urban VIII. Under threat of torture he recanted - agreed his findings were false. He lived the rest of his life under house arrest. This conviction represented the conflicts between religion and science.

23 The Universe is like a clock, with its parts all working together perfectly in ways that can be expressed mathematically. God is the creator of this orderly universe. He is the clockmaker that set everything in motion. - Galileo

24 Sir Isaac Newton English physicist, mathematician, and astronomer Widely considered the most influential scientist in the Scientific Revolution Tried to prove that all physical objects were equally affected by the same forces. He used math to prove the existence of gravity a force that kept planets in their orbits around the sun, and also caused objects to fall towards the earth.

25 Sir Isaac Newton discovered the universal law of gravity proved the sun's gravity keeps the planets within their orbits Wrote Law of Universal Gravitation. Every object in the universe attracts every other object. degree of attraction depends on the mass of the object and the distance between them. Newton published his ideas in The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.

26 Sir Isaac Newton He discovered laws of light and color, and formulated the laws of motion: A body at rest stays at rest Acceleration is caused by force For every action there is an equal opposite reaction He invented calculus: a method of mathematical analysis.

27 So in the end... All of these discoveries went against the teachings of the Catholic Church Many scientists of the time period were pressured by the Church not to print their theories These early scientists laid the groundwork for the scientific revolution where ideas were based on observation and fact and not on religious or ancient beliefs

28 Results of the Scientific Revolution new approach to science had emerged, known as the Scientific Method. Scientific Method painstaking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis. Scientists observed nature, made hypotheses, or educated guesses, and then tested these hypotheses through experiments. This was different than the old world view because it did not rely on the classical thinkers or the Church Instead it depended upon a step-by-step process of observation and experimentation. The new method set the world onto a new path of technological progress.

29 Results of the Scientific Revolution New world views emerged that were not tied to the teachings of the church People started to question the status quo New methods for gathering and learning information began to be used Scientific communities began to develop and spread Technology began to be invented and produced at a quicker rate

30 What did we just learn? Let s Review

31 Assessment Why would the church not like the advances made during the Scientific Revolution? a. They did not like astronomy. b. The new ideas challenged the scientific thinkers. c. They felt like it would give the church too many followers. d. The new ideas challenged their authority. Sir Isaac Newton was responsible for the ideas of the a. Laws of Motion and the Laws of Power b. Laws of Gravitation and the Laws of Motion c. Laws of Orbits and Laws of Gravitation

32 Assessment Using math and astronomy, Kepler determined that a. The Earth was the center of the universe. b. Planets rotated clockwise. c. Planets orbit the sun in an elliptical pattern. d. The sun rotates in an elliptical pattern around the earth. The conviction of Galileo represented the a. Power of the church to scare people b. Power of science to change the world c. Weakness of man to stand up for his beliefs d. Struggle between science and religion

33 SSWH 13 B Identify the major ideas of the Enlightenment from the writings of Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau and their relationship to politics and society.

34 Old Worldviews Society and politics built upon: Tradition Hierarchies Inequality Privilege Wealth A relationship with the Church and its teachings Attempts to control thinking

35 Enlightenment It emerged out of the aftermath of the Scientific Revolution. Ideas of Enlightenment Thought: The universe can be understood through reason Human experience is the basis for understanding the truth Religion has no place in the understanding of the physical universe Natural laws natural is good and reasonable

36 Enlightenment It became a search for new ways to govern society Scholars thought that the scientific method could be applied to society A deep distrust of religion developed The rising new middle class was growing in size and wealth Questioned the old ways of doing things Believed in Progress for society (can be perfected) Liberties people should be free

37 Thomas Hobbes Convinced that all humans are wicked and evil Wrote Leviathan (1651) he wrote that people are driven by a restless desire for power Without laws, people would always be in conflict Governments were created to protect people for their own protection Believed in Absolute monarchies

38 Thomas Hobbes Later thinkers did not agree with Hobbes He important for being the first to use scientific reason on the problem of politics His scientific observations of human nature formed the basis of his opinion

39 John Locke Locke believed people could learn and improve themselves through their experiences Wrote Two Treatises of Government Believed in the idea that all people are born with 3 basic natural rights: life, liberty, and property and that these rights are unalienable (cannot be taken away) purpose of government is to protect these natural rights

40 John Locke Locke criticized absolute monarchy and advocated self-government. People have the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society. The true basis of government was a social contract between people and their government If the government fails to do so, citizens have a right to overthrow it. Believed in a limited government

41 John Locke power of the government comes from the consent of the people Belief in religious tolerance writing reflects the ideals of the Enlightenment in that men are created with equal rights and responsibilities under the law of nature His idea of a social contract impacted later authors and the revolutions in America and France.

42 Governments derive their power from the consent of the people -John Locke

43 "We should have a great many fewer disputes in the world if words were taken for what they are, the signs of our ideas only, and not for things themselves." -John Locke **extolling the virtues of the use of reason to solve world problems

44 Baron de Montesquieu an Enlightenment philosopher Wrote The Spirit of Laws credited with the idea of "separation of powers." believed that the best government was one in which power was shared and that one group had the ability to check the powers of the other groups.

45 Baron de Montesquieu impacted later authors and the revolutions in America and France Lasting Impact: He greatly influenced the men who wrote the U.S. Constitution. We now have a separate legislative (Congress), judicial (courts), and executive (President) branch.

46 Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) philosopher, historian, playwright known for his wit and criticism most famous novel was Candide, in which he poked fun at old religious ideas Used satire to attack the French government and clergy I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it. Voltaire Fought for tolerance, reason, and the freedoms of religion and speech

47 Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) His main targets were the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government. He was twice sent to prison, and was exiled to England for two years. Never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech.

48 Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) He said humanity's worst enemies were intolerance, prejudice, and superstition. Believed in a limited government Impact: Voltaire met Benjamin Franklin, and when the U.S. Bill of Rights was written, the ideas of freedom of religion and freedom of speech were added to our 1st amendment to the Constitution

49 I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it -Voltaire

50 Jean Jacques Rousseau Wrote The Social Contract all people were equal people form governments for their mutual protection government rules only with the consent of the people Basis for the Declaration of Independence Called for the end of nobility which helped to spark the French Revolution Passionately committed to individual freedom, including religious tolerance

51 Jean Jacques Rousseau Best form of government practiced - Popular Sovereignty Believed the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people The authority of the government should be derived from the consent of the people

52 Rousseau s direct democracy People agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good. He explained this in his book The Social Contract. impacted later authors and the revolutions in America and France.

53 Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains -Rousseau

54 Why are they important? Ideas led to people challenging long held ideas about society Political philosophies of the Enlightenment inspired American and French revolutions in the 1800s all created ideas which had profound influences on the ideals that shaped American government

55 Why are they important? All had a profound influence on the French and American Revolutions All believed in limited governments Other Enlightenment ideas can be seen in the U.S. Constitution. America s basic law includes Montesquieu s idea of separation of powers. The Bill of Rights protects the freedom of religion and speech championed by Voltaire.

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