1 The Exchange of Ideas How did the Renaissance spark the growth and exchange of ideas across Europe????
2 Chapter Overview You will learn the influence that the exchange of ideas had on worldview by asking and answering questions regarding the impact of: new scientific discoveries. new thinking in leadership. How powerful institutions changed. The invention of the printing press
3 Read page 79. Why would the Church at this time consider the Sun-centered theory to be heresy? If you were a peasant at this time would you side with the church? Galileo the Heretic
4 Ideas That Spark Change and Shift Worldview What does Galileo s experience tell us about how difficult it is to change a worldview? It took several year for his theories were adopted by mainstream thinkers.
5 Consider the Inquiry Question! How did the Renaissance spark the growth and exchange of ideas across Europe? Why might these elements highlighted?
6 Freedom of Expression To what extent should people be free to express their ideas and opinions? Introduction to DEBATE. In Groups of 2 you will be assigned a position either FOR or AGAINST this issue. You will develop ONE ARGUMENT and ONE COUNTER ARGUMENT Choose ONE person who does not regularly contribute to be your representative.
7 Freedom of Expression EACH group will present their position and ONE group will present their counter argument. The ORIGINAL group will then get an opportunity to respond.
8 Freedom of Expression To what extent should people be free to express their ideas and opinions? Your argument statement should be structured like this: People should be free to express their ideas and opinions ALWAYS, SOMETIMES, NEVER State the benefits of your position. Make sure you SUPPORT your OPINIONS with FACTS. Your counter-arguments should be structured like this: My opponent may think. However they are misinformed because Again SUPPORT your OPINIONS with FACTS.
9 Science: A New Way of Thinking I will: Investigate the scientific ideas that occurred during the renaissance. Many of these discoveries were the result of a humanist way of thinking. Especially because they valued questioning and experimenting.
10 During the Renaissance the Scientific Method was developed as well as new ideas in the areas of: Astronomy Medicine Mathematics New Ideas and Views
11 How Can Scientific Discoveries Shape People s Worldview? During the beginning of the Renaissance if people chose to study sciences such as astronomy, physics, and biology, they would read books written by scholars from Classical of Islamic civilizations. However people were NOT encouraged to ask questions, study the natural world, or do hands on experiments.
12 A Changing Attitude And The Scientific Method Attitudes towards the sciences began to change and thinkers expanded the range of texts they read. The importance that humanism placed on human experiences encouraged people to question and experiment.
13 The Thoughts of da Vinci What is this great Renaissance thinker trying to say?
14 The Scientific Method Why is this method so effective? Which step is the most important?
15 How Did You Feel? Think about a time when something you believed was called in to question. How did it make you feel?
16 Developments in Astronomy Earth-centered universe was developed by Greek astronomer Ptolemy. Copernicus suggested the suncentered universe which was confirmed by Galileo
17 The Eagle Nebula Astrology is the science of stars The Eagle Nebula is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux in This photo was take by the Hubble Space telescope in 1990.
18 Take TWO and See Me In A Week In one pound of olive oil cook ten green lizards and filter them through linen; add one measure of marjoram and wormwood; cook slowly and set for use What does this tell you about the medical prescription for healing wounds suggest about Renaissance medicine?
19 Medicine and the Study of Anatomy Doctors had very little accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and the causes of disease. Anatomy is the science or study of the bodily structure. Most remedies were based on astrology, superstition, bloodletting, or applying leeches. People with knowledge of herbal remedies played an important role in treating the sick.
20 Growing Knowledge!!!! During the Renaissance medical knowledge grew, particularly in anatomy and surgery. Scientists and doctors began to apply the scientific method to make new discoveries about the human body and how it worked.
21 Understanding Anatomy During the Renaissance, dissection was made legal for the purposes of study in many Italian cities Andreas Vesalius, a professor would dissect bodies in his lecture hall as his students watched and learned. He authored a book called the fabric of the human body which included accurate and detailed drawings.
22 Math was Important To: Astronomers like Kepler who used mathematical calculations in their works. The Economy. As trade and commerce grew, knowledge of math became essential to members of the merchant class. Earlier civilizations contributed to Renaissance understanding of Math. The concept of zero was used in ancient India and the decimal system was refined by Muslim mathematicians.
23 Mathematics and the Arts Great thinkers like da Vinci believed that mathematics was the basic tool for understanding the universe.
24 Development of Perspective Renaissance architect Filippo Brunelleschi rediscovered the mathematical theory of perspective. He used drawings to show how the buildings he was planning would look when they were finished.
25 Recreate and Complete the Chart Discipline Innovator Discovery Astronomy Medicine Mathematics
26 Chapter 4 Political and Religious Leadership
27 Who is an good example of a leader and what makes them great?
28 What role do leaders play in changing or maintaining worldview?
29 Political and Religious Leadership The struggle for power within the Italian city-states created wars among them. Merchants and bankers as well as humanists came to believe that strong leadership was the solution. Strong leaders would bring peace and stability that would allow business and the arts to prosper. This posed the question. Who should these leaders be and how would they best rule?
30 Civic humanism encouraged citizens to participate in the government of their state. Isabella D Este grew up in a cultured family in the city-state of Mantua. She received a fine classical education and, as a girl, met many famous humanist scholars and artists. When she was 16 she married the Duke of Mantua. Their court became a centre of learning, music, and the visual arts. Isabella s brilliant mind was much admired and she became known as the first lady of the world.
31 The Duke of Mantua was often away on military campaigns, so Isabella ruled the city-state in his absence. She wrote many letters to her husband keeping him informed about the political situation in Mantua.
32 In one letter she told him about her activities as ruler:
33 What do you think made Isabella a good ruler?
34 Just as Renaissance scientists were using observation to learn about the natural world, the Florentine civil servant Niccolò Machiavelli was observing people and governments. His observations led him to new ways of thinking about leadership and power.
35 Machiavelli explained his conclusions about the best way to govern in his book The Prince. It became one of the most controversial and influential political texts ever written. Even today scholars continue to argue about Machiavelli and his theories. Although Machiavelli was a humanist, some of his ideas might surprise you.
36 Not everyone appreciated Machiavelli s tell it like it is attitude to politics. Along with Galileo s writings, The Prince was listed in the Church s Index of Prohibited Books. Machiavelli s ideas were revolutionary in their time for two reasons:
37 Reason 1 When it came to leadership, Machiavelli did not think that ideas of right and wrong were important. The only thing that mattered was the effective running of the state. The prince or leader could do anything as long as it was good for the state as a whole. Reason 2 Machiavelli described the state as a creation of human beings. It was a secular, that is, nonreligious institution. Machiavelli was not against religion, but it was not the focus of his thinking about politics and power.
38 Machiavelli seems to imply that the end justifies the means. What does this expression mean to you? Name some current and past leaders whom you consider followed this thinking. What are your opinions of them?
39 Some Church leaders, and some parish priests, took advantage of their authority to gain power and money for themselves and members of their family. Some bishops and cardinals bought their titles. Some priests did not honour their vow of poverty but spent the Church s money on themselves. People complained, and over the decades, the complaints became louder and louder.
40 1. Which groups of people was society disappointed with during the Renaissance? People during the Renaissance were also sometimes disappointed with their government, business, and religious leaders. What was the most powerful institution during the Renaissance? During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe. Many Church leaders considered that they were responsible for more than the religious well being of people; some considered the Church to be the natural leader in all areas of society - political and business, as well as religious.
41 1. Who was a monk who belonged to the Dominican order and what did he fight against? Girolamo Savonarola was a monk who belonged to the Dominican order. He dedicated his life to fighting against the corruption he saw in the Church and in society. For a few years, Savonarola was the unofficial political leader in Florence. 2. From the Church of San Marco, before as many as 3000 people, who was accusing Savonarola and what was he accusing him of? Savonarola preached sermons in which he accused the pope, Alexander VI, of corruption. His actions were contrary to the oath of obedience to the pope that all Roman Catholic clergy take even today.
42 3. In 1497 under Savonalrola s direction citizens built a large fire. What was the name of the fire and what did citizens burn? Under Savonarola s direction, in 1497, the citizens of Florence built a huge bonfire of the vanities in their town square and burned their wigs, make-up, fancy clothing, art, and books. Savonarola taught that these things kept people s attention away from God.
43 Savonarola Savonarola s continuous ranting against the pope and the Church in Rome, and his call for the establishment of a separate council to oppose the pope, led to his excommunication, that is, official exclusion from the Church. By then, the people of Florence were also tired of Savonarola s sermons and turned against him. 4. What significant event happened to Savonarola in 1498? In 1498, Savonarola was tried for heresy, found guilty, and executed.
44 Savonarola s criticisms didn t result in any changes in the Church. But almost 20 years later, Martin Luther, a German monk, took more effective action. 5. How was Luther influenced by humanist methods and what conclusions did he draw? Influenced by humanist methods, he began to carefully study the Bible for himself. He came to the conclusion that the Bible, rather than the Church, should be a Christian s true spiritual guide.
45 Luther was upset by the wealth of the Church and critical of the way it was obtained. 6. Explain the method regarding how the Church was making money. The Church made money by selling indulgences, which were certificates that reduced the time people would be punished for their sins after they died. In 1517, Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses criticizing the selling of indulgences on the Church door in Wittenberg. He challenged other scholars to debate Church issues. The Ninety-Five Theses were printed and distributed throughout Germany.
46 7. What did Pope Leo X issue and how did Luther respond? Pope Leo X issued a bull, or official order, condemning Luther and banned his works. Luther responded b publicly burned the pope s bull. In 1521, Luther was called before the emperor at an Imperial Diet (assembly) in the city of Worms and, like Galileo, asked to give up his ideas. 8. How did Galileo and Luther differ in response to being accused or heresy? What was the popes response Unlike Galileo, Luther didn t back down. According to legend he said, Here I stand. I can do no other. The pope excommunicated Luther. Emperor Charles V declared Luther an outlaw who could be killed and as a result Luther went into hiding.
47 Like his Ninety-Five Theses, Luther s Protestant translation of the Bible reached an unprecedented number of Germans. They followed Luther when he broke with the Catholic Church. A new church was started in Northern Europe the Lutheran Church. Before long, Luther s ideas spread all across Europe.
48 9. The name of Luther and the people who followed him were called? Luther and people who agreed with him were called Protestants. 10. What would this time in history would become known as? Explain why it was given this name. this time became known as the Protestant Reformation. It was given this name because Protestants protested against the Church s refusal to allow reform and eventually achieved a Reformation.
49 The Catholic Church lost much of its authority and membership because of the Protestant Reformation. 11. What was the name of the series of meetings called by Pope Paul III and what was examined? Pope Paul III called a series of meetings, now known as the Council of Trent, at which the Church examined its policies. 12. What moment began as a result of the meetings called by Pope Paul III and what was the result? This movement was known as the Catholic Counter- Reformation. As a result of these meetings, corruption among the higher clergy was cleaned up and priests were given a better education.
50 New religious orders that focused on converting people to Catholicism were also established during this time. 13. Who founded the most important order that was in charge of converting people to Catholicism and what was the order called? The most important of these was founded by Ignatius Loyola. It was called the Society of Jesus; his followers were called Jesuits.
51 14. Jesuit missionaries were active amongst which first nations group in the early days of European settlement? Jesuit missionaries were very active among the Wendat (Huron) during the early days of European settlement in Canada. 15. What did the Wendat call the missionaries and why were they given this name? The Wendat called them Black Robes because of the clothes they wore.
52 The Spread of Ideas How do ideas and knowledge spread?
53 Sharing Knowledge What is the information age? How does information spread so fast in todays world? What factors might have slowed down the sharing of information during the renaissance?
54 The Information Age The Renaissance was also an information age in that there were so many new ideas and so much new knowledge. The Renaissance began in Italy and eventually spread through France, Spain, and Portugal as well as northern Europe. Later, ideas also spread from the Americas to Renaissance Europe.
55 How did Ideas Spread? Spreading ideas and information 500 years ago was very different than it is today. At the beginning of the Renaissance, information was still largely spread by word of mouth.
56 Gathering Great Minds Some wealthy merchants played an important role in the exchange of ideas and knowledge. In Florence, the Medici family established the Platonic Academy where humanist thinkers gathered to discuss Greek ideas.
57 Universities Many early humanists taught at Italian universities. They shared their new ideas through discussions with one another and through their writings. Some instructors, such as Vesalius at the University of Padua, were so famous that students came from across Europe to study with them. The students then went back to their own cities and shared their learning.
58 Traveling Celebrities Famous Renaissance scientists, artists, and thinkers like Leonardo da Vinci and Erasmus were the superstars of their day. They were in demand in courts and universities all over Europe. Everywhere Leonardo went, he set up a workshop and trained younger artists. Erasmus taught at several universities and engaged in discussions with scholars all over Europe both in person and by letter.
59 Royal Courts Kings and queens were eager to attract scholars and writers to their courts. The court of François 1er (Francis I) of France became a centre of learning. He collected manuscripts, Renaissance paintings, and sculptures. He invited Leonardo da Vinci to his court after France invaded Milan in He provided Leonardo with a house and a very generous pension.
60 The Printing Press: A New Technology If you lived in Europe at the beginning of the Renaissance, you would probably have been illiterate. Only the most educated people in society could read and write. Being literate meant that you needed to know Latin or Greek.
61 Privilege of Wealth Most books at that time were written in Latin, the language of scholars and the Church. And finally, unless you were very wealthy, you would never be able to afford a book.
62 Johannes Gutenberg In about 1450, everything changed. A German named Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press that allowed books to be produced quickly and cheaply. Using this new technology, printers could produce thousands of books in the time it had once taken to make a single copy. They were printed on paper, which was much less expensive than parchment.
63 The Spread of Knowledge By 1500, there were more than six million books in print in Europe. Books allowed an exchange of ideas and knowledge in Europe on a scale that had never been known before. Now that books were cheaper and more accessible, middle-class people began to read, discuss, and eventually write about the exciting ideas of their time.
64 The Spread of Knowledge Instead of printing books only in Latin, more books were printed in the vernacular, that is, the language that ordinary people spoke. The success of Luther s 1522 New Testament was based in part on existing demand for books and Bibles in German. Thinkers like Erasmus made money from the books they wrote. This gave them the freedom to travel to many cities and universities spreading their ideas.
65 Canadians and the Internet 90 percent of Canadian teens (age 15 19) use the Internet. Canadian teens use the Internet to access information (71 percent), communicate electronically (60 percent), play games (48 percent) and learn school-related material (32 percent) 45 percent of Canadian teens aged prefer instant messaging as a means of communication. Francophones are less likely to use the Internet than Anglophones.
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