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1 Name: Document Packet Week 15 Reformation & Renaissance Date: In this packet you will have all the documents for the week. This document packet must be in class with you every day. We will work with these documents every day. WEEK 15 DAY 1 DOCUMENTS: Whole Class Reformation Background The Protestant Reformation was a major turning point in history. Not only did it affect religious life in Europe, but also affected social, political, and economic institutions as well. The Reformation's leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin, both educated as priests for the Catholic Church. The Reformation was a protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church. The followers of Luther and Calvin became known as Protestants, because of their "protesting." Causes Church Corruption: By the 1500s the Catholic Church was the most wealthy and powerful institution in Europe. Many church leaders lived more like kings, than priests, and became increasingly involved in political matters. To raise money for these activities, the Church raised fees for services such as, marriage and baptism, and also began the sale of indulgences, which were letters of forgiveness for one's sins. This caused both anger and resentment across Europe, and many called for reforms to take place. Martin Luther Martin Luther was a German monk who was concerned about the sale of indulgences and other corruptions in the church. In 1517, he wrote his 95 Theses, which were 95 arguments against the sale of indulgences. He posted these on the door of the Wittenberg church in protest. The Catholic Church ordered Luther to recant, or take back his theses, but he refused. The Church excommunicated him, and would have executed him had they been able to capture him. Luther's ideas spread quickly throughout the Germany and Scandinavia, mainly due to the new printing press. Luther's beliefs are what sparked the Reformation. Beliefs Luther believed that Christians could only reach salvation through faith in god. He did not believe that the Pope or other priests had any special powers, including the forgiveness of sins. Luther's beliefs became the basis for the Protestant form of Christianity. John Calvin John Calvin was another priest - turned reformer. Like Luther, he believed that faith in god provided the path to salvation, but he also promoted the idea of predestination. Predestination is the belief that certain people were chosen by god for salvation. Followers of Calvin all believed they were predestined for heaven. They setup religious communities throughout Europe and lived very strict, moral lives.

2 Counter/Catholic Reformation As a response to the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church began a program to enact reform from within. The purpose of the Counter/Catholic Reformation was to end corruption, return to traditional teachings, and to strengthen the church in an attempt to stop its members from converting. Pope Paul III called the Council of Trent in 1545 to institution these reforms. The Council setup new schools for priests, ended most corruption, and created new religious orders to deal with these problems.

3 The Society of Jesus The Society of Jesus was founded by Ignatius Loyola to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe. Jesuit training emphasized spiritual and moral discipline, as well as strict loyalty to the Church. Jesuits did much to slow the spread of the Protestant Reformation, and later became very successful as missionaries, spreading the Catholic faith throughout the rest of the world. Effects Luther's and Calvin's ideas spread across Europe quickly. This was due to unrest in the peasant population, inventions like the printing press, and the support of rulers wishing to free themselves from Catholic control. Religious unity in Europe was lost, which resulted in many wars including, civil wars in Germany and France, and wars between Protestant England and Catholic France and Spain. The Reformation also leads to a period of anti-semitism. Both Catholics and Protestants place restrictions on Jews, often forcing them to live in separate areas of town. Witch hunts also increased as many people, caught up in religious zeal, accuse others of Satanism. Thousands were killed as a result, most of them women. Overall, the Protestant Reformation and the Counter/Catholic Reformation changed the face of society in Europe. Before the Reformation, Europe was united behind a single faith, with a strong Church for guidance. By the end, Europe is divided religiously, and strong monarchs fill the leadership void left as a result of a weakened Catholic Church.

4 1) What was the Church doing that was corrupt? 2) What did Martin Luther do that made the Catholic Church so angry? 3) How did Martin Luther s ideas spread? 4) What were Martin Luther s beliefs and what form of Christianity developed from them? 5) What is the difference between the beliefs of Martin Luther and John Calvin? 6) What were 5 results of the Protestant Reformation in Europe? 7) Create a BLPT card for: Protestant Reformation; Martin Luther; Printing Press; Counter Reformation

5 WEEK 15 DAY 1 DOCUMENTS: The Renaissance Background The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in Europe. It was a rebirth of cultural and intellectual pursuits after the stagnation of the Middle Ages. The Renaissance produced a golden age with many achievements in art, literature, and science, but most importantly, it produced a new concept of how people thought of themselves, each other, and the world around them. The Renaissance was centered in Italy during the 1300s, before spreading throughout Europe in the 1500 and 1600s. Humanism Humanism was an intellectual movement where people began to focus on life in the present, which was in contrast to the Middle Ages' focus on the after life. Humanism stressed the importance of education, with the study of ancient Greek and Roman texts becoming the learning standard. Humanism also stressed the importance of the individual. This movement was the driving force of the Renaissance and is reflected in the period's artistic, literary, and scientific achievements. Art & Architecture Renaissance artists and architects produced some of the finest works in all the world. While religious art was still very prominent, new styles were developed. Humanist ideas, and the concept of realism, was reflected in many art forms. Artists such as Leonardo Da Vinci studied anatomy, while others used live models to better catch the human form. Artists also learned the rules of perspective allowing them to give their works a 3 dimensional appearance. Architects revived many ancient Greek and Roman styles, such as the use of columns, domes, and arches. Artists Michelangelo: Sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David. Leonardo Da Vinci: A true Renaissance man interested in a variety of subjects. He was a painter, sculptor, engineer, and inventor. Famous works include paintings Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Also left a variety of sketches showing flying machines and underwater boats centuries before the invention of planes and submarines.

6 Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution develops as a offshoot of the Renaissance. The same spirit of inquiry that fueled the Renaissance, led scientists to question traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. One of the main ideas to come out of the Scientific Revolution was the use of the Scientific Method. The Scientific Method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on how the universe works. Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus developed the heliocentric model of the universe. This states that the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it. Despite his calculations, many scholars disagree with his theories and continue to believe in the geocentric model proposed by the ancient Greek Ptolemy 1500 years earlier. Galileo Galileo continues Copernicus' work by observing the skies with a homemade telescope. Although he was able to prove Copernicus correct, his work was rejected by the Church and he was forced to recant (take back) or face execution. Newton Isaac Newton built upon the earlier work of Copernicus and Galileo and used mathematics to describe gravity as the force that keeps planets revolving around the sun. He also explained that this same force is what causes objects to fall to earth. 1) What was the Renaissance? 2) What is Humanism?

7 3) What were 3 contributions that Leonardo Da Vinci made to society? 4) What was the Scientific Revolution? 5) What was Copernicus major contribution to science? 6) What was Galileo s major contribution to science? 7) What was Newton s major contribution to science? 8) Create a BLPT card for Humanism, Renaissance, Scientific Revolution (including important people) & Leonardo Da Vince.

8 WEEK 15 DAY 2 DOCUMENTS: Whole Class/Partner Work Day 2 Document Gutenberg s methods spread with stunning rapidity. By 1500 an estimated half million printed books were in circulation: religious works, Greek and Roman classics, scientific texts, Columbus s report from the New World. An acceleration of the Renaissance was only the first by-product of the Gutenberg press. Without it, the Protestant movement might have been stillborn [failed], as well as the subsequent political and industrial revolutions. Gutenberg, however, got none of the glory. His brainchild [idea] bankrupted him; the year his Bible was published, a creditor took over his business. Little more is known of the inventor in part because he never put his own name into print.... Source: Robert Friedman, ed., The Life Millennium: The 100 Most Important Events & People of The Past 1,000 Years, Time, Based on this document, state two effects of Gutenberg s invention. (1) (2)

9 Source: gutenberg/2a.html The Book Before Gutenberg The earliest books were written on scrolls. From the Second Century A.D. to the present time, however, most books have been produced in the familiar codex format in other words, bound at one edge. During the Middle Ages, manuscript books were produced by monks who worked with pen and ink in a copying room known as a scriptorium. Even a small book could take months to complete, and a book the size of the Bible could take several years According to these documents, how were books made before the development of the Gutenberg press? [1]

10 Gradually scientists came to challenge more and more what the ancients [past civilizations] taught. They came to develop new, better methods of finding out how things worked. Mathematical knowledge increased and helped them to reason. They began to think up experiments to check on their ideas in a methodical way. The scientific revolution had begun. Many men were needed to bring this about. These men came from every part of Europe. They wrote books to explain their ideas. The printing press made it possible to produce thousands of copies which found their way all over Europe. Scientists were able to learn from one another and give one another new ideas. So the Scientific Revolution was not the work of Englishmen, or Frenchmen, or Italians alone. It was the work of Europeans. And, as we have seen, even they did not do it all by themselves. The Chinese, the Indians, the Persians, and the Arabs all gave something before it came about. Today this is not hard to understand, because men and women from all over the world add to scientific knowledge and so help one another....!!!!!! Source: Peter Amey, Scientific Revolution, Greenhaven Press Based on this document, state two changes resulting from the Scientific Revolution. (1) (2)

11 In the Middle Ages to praise man was to praise God, for man was a creation of God. But Renaissance writers praised man himself as a creator. They played down the sinfulness he was born with and emphasized his ability to think and act for himself, to produce works of art, to guide the destiny of others. They freed man from his pegged place in the medieval hierarchy, halfway between matter and spirit, and allowed him to roam at will, through all the levels of being, sometimes identifying himself with the brutes, sometimes with the angels. He was seen as the ruler of nature the lord, although not the Lord, of creation. This new vision of man sprang from a heightened awareness of self. Medieval men had been preoccupied with searching their souls, but Renaissance men were much more intrigued with exploring, and indeed parading, their own personalities. Petrarch is a perfect example. Although his serious interests centered on his work in discovering and editing ancient texts, Petrarch was also interested in himself. In his letters, designed for posterity [future generations] as well as his friends, he left a record of his reactions to love affairs and friendship, to mountains and the flowers in his garden. They are an intellectual and emotional self-portrait, the first since antiquity [ancient times] In what way did man s view of the world change between the European medieval period and the Renaissance according to John R. Hale? Assumptions 1. There is no one center of all the celestial [heavenly] circles or spheres [planets]. 2. The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere. 3. All the spheres [planets] revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.... Nicholas Copernicus, The Commentariolus, (1510) Source: Edward Rosen, Three Copernican Treatises, Columbia University Press 5. State one scientific belief of Copernicus that is being described in this passage. [1]

12 WEEK 15 DAY 3 DOCUMENT We are going to. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

13 DOCUMENT We are going to. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

14 DOCUMENT 3 PAIR WORK We are going to. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

15 DOCUMENT 4 INDIVIDUAL WORK We are going to. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

16 Week 15 Day 4: Grouping and Ordering Renaissance Reformation & In your groups arrange the documents into different groups. You should have at least 2 different groups of at least 3 documents EACH. Your groupings can be based on anything that you can support. When you have made your groups list them below. Then answer the questions about your choices. Group 1: Group 3: Group 2: Group 4: 1) What is the main idea that holds each of the groupings together? 2) What did you see that made you combine the documents into each group? 3) Write the main idea for each grouping. 4) Do any of them overlap or fit together in some way? 5) Do they address similar elements or similar points of view?

17 If you have finished and there is time left create a new order of groups for your documents. List your groups below and then answer the questions. Remember these groups must be different than your previous groups. Group 1: Group 3: Group 2: Group 4: 1) What is the main idea that holds each of the groupings together? 2) What did you see that made you combine the documents into each group? 3) Write the main idea for each grouping. 4) Do any of them overlap or fit together in some way? 5) Do they address similar elements or similar points of view?

18 Week 15 Day 5: Current Day Connections Reformation & Renaissance This is a new section to our week. In this section you will read a newspaper article FROM TODAY S NEWS and connect it to our topic. There are vocabulary words missing that you need to fill in while we are reading the article. CATHOLIC REFORMERS BUSY PETITION OUTSIDE ST. PAT'S By Bob Liff AND Helen Kennedy / NEW YORK DAILY NEWS Monday, February 17, 1997, 12:00 AM Activist Catholics yesterday took their campaign for radical reform of the Church to St. Patrick's Cathedral, urging the ordination of women, optional celibacy for the clergy and rights for gays and lesbians. As Cardinal O'Connor told worshipers inside the cathedral "I trust your judgment," activists on the front steps began a national campaign for signatures on their referendum for change. Launching the effort on the first Sunday of Lent, a time of repentance, the We Are Church activists collected signatures on petitions that also called for lay participation in the selection of bishops and pastors. The petitions did not mention abortion, but included a provision for "primacy of conscience in moral decision-making," which the activists said could include abortion and birth control. The Vatican has strongly resisted such pleas for change. "Jesus was open to dialogue with anyone, including people with whom he vehemently disagreed," said Sister Maureen Fiedler, national coordinator of the We Are Church campaign. "If our faith community is going to be true to the kind of Church that Jesus left us, we have to be open to dialogue as well. " The group hopes to get a million American Catholics to sign the petitions, Fiedler said. Organizers in Austria and Germany have gathered about 2.3 million signatures, the group added. Inside St. Patrick's, O'Connor told his flock, "You are grown Catholics in here, I trust your judgment. I have never told you what to sign or what not to sign. And it is up to your conscience whether you sign any kind of petition at all. " Many worshipers accepted the organization's literature without commenting. Others, like Mary Reilly of Maspeth, Queens, refused to sign. "The Church is not a democracy. Whether I agree or not, it is my choice to come or not. I choose to come and respect the rules of the Church," she said. But some showed their support in ink. "The majority of American Catholics are moving ahead regardless of what the Pope says," said Margaret Dubbins of Los Angeles. "Do these men that are cloistered in seminaries for 15 years have any concept of what it's like to raise a family in the 1990s? " Dubbins asked. "Women belong up on the pulpit. Women have a voice that hasn't been heard. " The activist group also distributed the petitions yesterday outside major churches and cathedrals in Washington, Denver, Des Moines, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, Wilmington, Del., and Belleville, Ill. "Change can percolate from the bottom up," said Fiedler of the Sisters of Loretto, who was among about 15 members of the group gathering signatures in front of St. Patrick's.

19 1) Write a summary of this article. 2) Write a counter argument for this sentence and explain why: Martin Luther and his 95 Theses is a completely different concept than what is happening in the Catholic Church today.

20 WEEK 15 DAY 6: Writing Skills Reformation & Renaissance Independent Work: Write two paragraphs (minimum 8 sentences each) about the Protestant Reformation and the Renaissance You must use at least 4 documents to support your information. Your paragraphs should include the impacts of the Reformation and the Renaissance on society. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting Martin Luther and his 95 Theses and the article from Day 5 about reforms in the Catholic Church today. Use your knowledge of The Reformation and our day 5 article to write a paragraph (minimum 8 sentences) that support your ideas.

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