French Absolutism, Enlightenment, & Revolution!

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1 French Absolutism, Enlightenment, & Revolution! Outcome: The Enlightenment 1

2 Constructive Response Questions 2. What was the Enlightenment and who were some of the key contributors? 2

3 What Will We Learn? 1. What is the Enlightenment 2. Thomas Hobbes 3. John Locke 4. The Philosophes 3

4 The Scientific Revolution 1. Setting the Stage: The Renaissance & The Reformation a. The Renaissance, a rebirth of learning and the arts, inspired a spirit of curiosity in many fields. b. Scholars began to question ideas that had been accepted for hundreds of years c. The Reformation prompted religious followers to challenge accepted ways of thinking about God and salvation. 4

5 2. The Enlightenment The Enlightenment a. Not only did new ways of thinking apply to science, but were also applied to all aspects of society: government, religion, economics, and education. b. This spurred on the Enlightenment: a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power for individuals to solve problems. 5

6 6

7 7

8 Thomas Hobbes 8

9 The Enlightenment 3. Views on Government: Thomas Hobbes a. All humans are naturally selfish and wicked and we need a strong ruler to govern. b. Hobbes called for a social contract, a government where people agreed to give total control to a monarch because people acted in their own self interest. 9

10 John Locke 10

11 The Enlightenment 4. Views on Government: John Locke a. More positive view than Hobbes; people could learn from experiences and improve themselves b. All people are born free and equal with three natural rights: life, liberty, and property. c. The purpose of government is to protect these rights, if they fail to do so, the citizens have the right to over throw it. 11

12 The Enlightenment 5. The Philosophes Advocate Reason a. Social critics in France during the 1700s were known as philosophes b. Five concepts formed their core beliefs: Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, Liberty 12

13 5. The Philosophes Advocate Reason The Enlightenment c. Voltaire was the most brilliant and influential of the philosophes d. He used satire against the clergy, aristocracy, and government e. Even though Voltaire made enemies, he never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and freedom of speech. 13

14 5. The Philosophes Advocate Reason The Enlightenment f. Montesquieu believed Britain was best-governed and helped influence creation of US government g. Rousseau was passionately committed to individual freedoms h. Beccaria was interested in the justice system; laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes. i. Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women s education should not be secondary to men s and that women need to education to become more virtuous and useful. 14

15 Mary Wollstonecraft 15

16 The Enlightenment Result: The Enlightenment writers challenged long held beliefs and ideas about society. They challenged the church, state, monarchs, and unequal social classes. These ideas would spread and ultimately help start two of the most influential events of World History: The American and French Revolutions. 16

17 Constructive Response Questions 2. What was the Enlightenment and who were some of the key contributors? 17

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