Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. Mrs. Brahe World History II

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1 Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Mrs. Brahe World History II

2 Objectives Describe how the Scientific Revolution gave Europeans a new way to view humankind's place in the universe Discuss how 18 th century intellectuals used the ideas of the Scientific Revolution to examine all aspects of life Discover how Enlightenment beliefs were reflected in art, music, and literature of the time Summarize how Enlightenment thought influenced politics of Europe in the 18 th century

3 The Scientific Revolution New developments encouraged new ways of thinking contrary to ancient thinkers like Ptolemy, Aristotle, Plato Scientific activity stimulated Ex: ships cargo weight, distances Observation and accurate measurements important new instruments developed Telescope, microscope Printing press spread ideas Mathematics emphasis New theories especially affected Astronomy

4 Revolution in Astronomy Geocentric Earth at center of universe Ptolemy, 2 nd century A.D. Universe is a series of concentric spheres, one inside the other, orbs of light (heaven is outside last sphere) Heliocentric sun-centered universe Nicholas Copernicus: Earth rotates on axis, moves around sun, moon revolves around Earth Johannes Kepler: orbits are elliptical (egg-shaped) Other mathematicians Galileo Galilei: observations of heavens using telescope, moon and planets are material substances Issac Newton: universal law of gravitation

5 Medicine and Chemistry Discoveries Examined organs, structure of human body Circulation of blood Heart (not liver) beginning point for blood Veins and arteries, same blood, complete circuit Boyle s Law (properties of gas) System of naming chemical elements developed Margaret Cavendish and Maria Winkelmann Wrote books, discovered comet in Germany 14% astronomers were women obstacles as scientists, little recognition New conceptions (universe, discoveries) created doubt and uncertainty

6 Philosophy Rationalism: system of thought based on belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge Rene Descartes: I think, therefore I am Separation of mind and matter (mind and body) so can be investigated by reason The Scientific Method: systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence Crucial to development of modern science Francis Bacon s idea inductive reasoning: scientists should proceed from the particular to the general Carefully organized experiments to test hypotheses (theories) lead to correct general principles

7 Enlightenment Enlightenment: 18 th century philosophical movement of intellectuals greatly impressed by the Scientific Revolution Reason application of scientific method to an understanding of all life Progress toward better society Reason, natural law, hope, progress Influenced by Englishmen: Newton natural laws, and Locke tabula rasa (every person is a blank slate)

8 Philosophers Common Characteristics Writers, professors, journalists, economists, social reformers Nobility and middle class (usually French) More radical with each generation Montesquieu: natural laws that govern social and political relationships of humans (separation and balance of powers) Voltaire: deism (God created the universe, natural laws and does not interfere) religious tolerance Diderot: promoted social, legal, political improvements to create a more tolerate and humane society

9 New Social Science Economics Laissez-faire: let people do what they want individuals pursue own economic self-interest, all society will benefit (gov t should not interfere) Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations = capitalism! Justice Beccaria opposed capital punishment and cruel and excessively brutal laws Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should, in order to prevent murder, publically commit murder themselves?

10 Later Enlightenment Jean-Jacques Rousseau: social contract theory Mary Wollstonecraft: founder of women s rights movement Monarch s power over subjects = men's power over women Reason in all human beings thus women also can reason and should have equal rights to education, economics and political life Effects Growth of reading (printing = magazines, newspapers) Salons (elegant drawing rooms of wealthy) conversations spread ideas among intellectuals and elite Religion Inquisition Catholic reaction to controversial ideas John Wesley: Methodism conversion experience (helped abolish slave trade) proved need for spiritual experience as not eliminated by the search for reason

11 Impact of the Enlightenment Architecture and Art Grandiose residences (like Versailles) Rococo style of painting delicate designs, light graceful curves, (emphasized pleasure, love, grace, happiness, charm, gentle actions) Music and Literature Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederick Handel, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart European novel (middle class readers)

12 Enlightened Absolutism Philosophers emphasis on natural rights Equality before the law, freedom of religious worship, freedom of speech/press, right to assemble, hold property, pursue happiness Declaration of Independence! Enlightened Absolutism: govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining royal powers Nurture the arts, sciences, education Obey laws, enforce fairly, reform society

13 Enlightened Monarchs? Prussia Frederick the Great Educated and cultured Abolished torture, more freedom of speech/press, religious toleration But maintained serfdom and rigid social structure Austria Empress Maria Theresa Alleviated condition of the serfs Son Joseph II continued and expanded reforms (abolished serfdom, death penalty, equality before law, religious toleration) Russia Catherine the Great Considered law code of all equal then rejected Depended on support of Russian nobility Focused on territorial expansion, crushing rebellions Focus was power and well-being of state, not reform

14 Most Influential Person of the Enlightenment? Nicholas Copernicus Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Rene Descartes Francis Bacon Baron de Montesquieu Voltaire Denis Diderot Adam Smith Jean-Jacques Rousseau Mary Wollstonecraft John Wesley Johann Sebastian Bach George Frederick Handel Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Frederick the Great Empress Maria Theresa Catherine the Great

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