1 The Enlightenment Reason Natural Law Hope Progress
2 Enlightenment Discuss: What comes to your mind when you think of enlightenment?
3 Enlightenment Movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution How can we understand all life? REASON Thinkers hoped to make PROGRESS toward a better society than the one they had inherited
4 Before We Travel Back to the 18th century... Let s experience personal enlightenment ourselves!!
5 The Enlightenment: The Role of Ideas Nature: Peace or War?; Nature vs Nurture The Role of Individuals A Few Good Men & a Woman!!
6 1. Wrote the Leviathan Thomas Hobbes - Dealt w/ problem of disorder 2. Before society organized: state of WAR - solitary, poor, nasty, brutish & short - Humans guided NOT by reason & morals, but self-preservation 3. To save selves: made a social contract - Agreed to form a st., Leviathan; owe peace & defense - Ruled by an absolute ruler w/ unlimited power - Subjects cannot rebel; crushed if they do
7 John Locke 1. Wrote Two Treatises of Govt 2. Argued AGAINST absolute rule of one person 3. Before society organized: - st. of freedom & equality - humans had inalienable natural rights: life, liberty, & property
8 John Locke (cont.) Mutual Obligation 5. Agreed: est. govt. to protect rights (protect property) 6. Contract of mutual obligation - Govt protected rights of people - People would act reasonably towards govt 7. If govt broke contract: people might form new form Laid foundation for US Constitution
9 Where Do They Differ? Write: Title your paper, Locke v Hobbes 1. Create a flow chart w/ me for Locke & Hobbes using primary sources 2. On which points do Locke & Hobbes disagree? Where do they agree? 3. Which philosopher do you agree with in terms of how a government forms and what the ideal type of government should be?
10 Locke: An Essay Concerning 1. Tabula Rasa Human Understanding - Every person is born w/ a blank mind 2. Knowledge comes from environment, not heredity 3. Learn from reason, not faith 4. If you environment, you can people
11 Tabula Rasa Do you Agree? Debate: Nature vs Nurture One Side: believes your genetics shapes who you are Other side: believes your environment/experiences shape who you are Related Issues: Homosexuality, intelligence, schizophrenia, eating disorders, cancer, obesity, child development/parenting, handedness, depression (serotonin) Vs.
12 Daily Response Mankind has a perpetual and restless desire for power after power a man hopes for more because he cannot assure the power and means to live well, which he hath present, without the acquisition of more. Do you agree? Examples to support and/or oppose this contention?
13 Goals of the Enlightenment 1. By using reason, a perfect society could be created (EX: Using a step- by-step theory) 2. Reason & rationality leads to progress & human happiness (..Why?) 3. Cast off chains of superstition, bigotry & religious fanaticism (why chains?) 4. Rejection of revelation & traditional
14 French Enlightenment Thinkers Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot Key Ideas - Religious toleration & secularization (Voltaire) Democrats: For Religious Toleration - Observation & criticism are essential (Diderot)
15 Intellectuals: Philosophes 1. Literary people, professors, journalists, economists, pol. scientists, social reformers 2. Nobility & middle class (bourgeoisie) 3. Role of phil. = world (not just discuss it) 4. The Republic of Letters: an informal Q: How did they spread their ideas??..
16 Enlightenment Institutions Salons Academies Masonic Lodges Newspapers Coffee Houses Public Opinion Forbidden Literature 18th century English coffee house
17 3 French Giants 1. Montesquieu Idea: Separation of Powers 2. Voltaire Idea: Deism/Religious Freedom 3. Diderot Idea: Encyclopedia
18 Montesquieu 1. Wrote, The Spirit of the Laws 2. 3 types of govt: Despotism (for lg states) Republics (for sm states) Monarchy (for med. States) **Favored const l monarchy 3. Importance of checks & balances Need a separation of powers Need checks & balances
19 Montesquieu Analysis On your own paper, identify to the following: 1. Author, Title of work 2. Document Information 3 things the author said that you think are important Why you think the document was written Evidence in the document that helps you know why it was written (2 quotes, highlight/underline document) What audience you think the document was intended for Two things the document tells you about life in Europe at the time the document was
20 Voltaire: The Major Figure Criticized 1. Wrote, Treatise on Toleration 2. **Stressed rel. toleration 3. All men are brothers under God. 4. Deism: denies interference of the Creator w/ the laws of the universe 5. Universe is a clock: God is clockmaker who created it, ppl act according to natural laws
21 Voltaire, A Plea For Tolerance & Reason WRITE & PARAPHRASE (underline unfamiliar words, too) Of all religions, the Christian ought doubtless to inspire the most tolerance, although hitherto the Christians have been the most intolerant Is each citizen to be permitted to believe and to think that which his reason rightly or wrongly dictates? He should indeed,
22 Ok, So What s Deism?? 1. God created world, but, religion must be moral, rationalistic, & natural; denies interference of the Creator w/ the laws of the universe. 2. Moral argument for the existence of God, without God morality is not possible, therefore, God must exist. - If God did not exist, we must invent God! 3. Voltaire: It s not possible to theoretically demonstrate the immortality of the soul, and yet without the immortality of the soul,
23 Diderot 1. Condemned Christianity (fanatical & unreasonable) 2. Created the Encyclopedia Purpose: To the general way of thinking Intended as a compilation of all knowledge Many articles in it attacked religious superstition & supported religious toleration Sold to many; spread ideas Note: Attention to Detail
24 Adam Smith: Discuss What does survival of the fittest mean to you?? Examples??
25 Adam Smith 1. Father of modern economics 2. Laissez-faire: to let alone - Govt should leave the economy alone 3. Wrote, The Wealth of Nations, The state shouldn t interfere with economic matters Q: Is this more republican or
26 Laissez-Faire THINK & WRITE: Identify & list the ways in which your government does not follow a policy of laissez-faire but chooses instead to intervene in the economy. Do you think your lives are better or worse because of government intervention? How many young people could afford an education if their families had to pay for their schooling directly from their own funds?
27 Adam Smith (cont.) Government s 3 Basic Roles: 1. Protect society from invasion - The army 2. Defend citizens from injustice - The police 3. Keep up certain public works, such as roads & canals, that private individual couldn t afford **Thus, the state should stay
28 Smith s Modern Impact What guides the economy then? - The freeplay of natural economic forces - The invisible hand (competition) Capitalism!! - The government should stay out! - Lower taxes! - Survival of the fittest!! Profit Incentive
29 Impacts (cont.) Idea: private enterprise would stimulate fair distribution of the wealth in a country DISCUSS: Do you think this is true? Why or why not? Have you seen this in the United States? Vs.
30 Govt s Role: You Decide!! Debate: The Role of Government 2 Sides: Do you support or oppose Adam Smith s vision of government? If supporting, you should identify reasons why the government shouldn t go beyond the bounds cited If opposing, you should identify other areas in which government might play a legitimate role.
31 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Criticized property: Man is born free & is everywhere in chains. Q: What does he mean? **Ex s of chains that bind people?? Questioned emphasis on reason alone
32 Rousseau: Social Contract (1762) 1. About the General Will Q: What s that? 2. Proposed a pol. solution to the tension betw. The individual & society - Based on the consent of the governed - General Will: the guide to social progress & good government 3. Wrote: Social Contract
33 The Social Compact 1. What is the social compact? Each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody. Each of us puts his person & all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will each member as an indivisible part of the whole. 2. It s a collective body In the US, we citizens are indivisible parts of the whole
34 Rousseau: Education 1. Wrote Emile 2. On the education of the natural man 3. Education: should foster, not restrict, children s natural instincts 4. Hypocrite!! Sent own children to orphanages, where many a young age 5. Women: naturally Valued Education Female Inferiority
35 Rousseau: You Decide Rousseau argues that govts & laws are made to protect private property but in fact enslave the people who created them. 1. Do you feel your govt protects your property (both body & material things)? 2. Do you feel enslaved by your govt? 3. What reasonable alternatives do you see to having a strong central govt? 4. How might have Rousseau s ideas have contributed to the creation of socialist ideas in the
36 Mary Wollstonecraft 1. Founder of modern European feminism 2. For the rights of women 3. Wrote: Vindication of the Rights of Women 4. Two Problems w/ Enlightenment thinkers
37 Two Problems with Enlightenment Thinkers 1. Many opposed the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects (subjects obeying the monarch) Then why must women obey men? 2. Enlightenment was based on an ideal of reason in ALL human beings If women have reason, then they, too, are entitles to the same rights that men have.
38 Effects of the Enlightenment Implications are revolutionary WHY? Proposed belief that men ought to be ruled by LAWS, not rulers The philosophes argued that social progress & political freedom were restrained by the state & the church & didn t reflect man s natural goodness Belief in progress & man s ability to solve problems
39 French Revolution Most important result of the Enlightenment No single cause for it Takes place in phases
The Age of Enlightenment Path to the Enlightenment 18th century philosophical movement by those greatly impressed with the scientific revolution Use systematic logic and reason to solve the problems of
The Enlightenment Main Ideas Eighteenth-century intellectuals used the ideas of the Scientific Revolution to reexamine all aspects of life. People gathered in salons to discuss the ideas of the philosophes.
You Will Be Able to Answer These Questions at the End of Class FOCUS QUESTIONS 1. What was the Enlightenment? 2. How did the Enlightenment contribute to new theories regarding society and government? Focus
Ideas of the Enlightenment Freedom from oppression & Absolutism Freedom from slavery & needless Warfare Attacked medieval & feudal society Suspicious of superstition & church Supported free speech & religion
AP World History Notes Chapter 16: Science and Religion (1450-1750) Popular interest in science spread throughout Europe More people used science to explain the universe, not the Church Monarchs set up
CH 15: Cultural Transformations: Religion & Science, 1450-1750 Enlightenment What was the social, cultural, & political, impact of the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment? The Scientific Revolution was
Era of Revolutions The Age of Enlightenment: Philosophes The Characteristics of the Enlightenment 1. Rationalism reason is the arbiter of all things. 2. Cosmology a new concept of man, his existence on
The Enlightenment The Age of Exploration led people to believe that truth had yet to be discovered The Scientific Revolution questioned accepted beliefs and witnessed the use of reason to explain the laws
THE PHILOSOPHES Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau Philosophes - public intellectuals dedicated to solving the problems of the World - wrote for a broad, educated public audience - fought to eradicate bigotry,
French Absolutism, Enlightenment, & Revolution! Outcome: The Enlightenment 1 Constructive Response Questions 2. What was the Enlightenment and who were some of the key contributors? 2 What Will We Learn?
Lesson 1 The Scientific Revolution ESSENTIAL QUESTION How do new ideas change the way people live? GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. How were the scientific ideas of early thinkers passed on to later generations? 2.
Name Date CHAPTER 22 Section 2 RETEACHING ACTIVITY The Enlightenment in Europe Multiple Choice Choose the best answer for each item. Write the letter of your answer in the blank. 1. The new intellectual
The Age of Enlightenment By History.com, adapted by Newsela staff on 10.13.17 Word Count 927 Level 1040L A public lecture about a model solar system, with a lamp in place of the sun illuminating the faces
THE AGE OF REASON PART II: THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1700-1789 I BACKGROUND: 1. Refers to an intellectual movement, which stood for rationalist, liberal, humanitarian, and scientific trends of thought. The erosion
AP European History Philosopher Networking Assignment Name of Philosopher: Francis Bacon Dates of Birth and Death: January 1561 to April 1626 The Advancement of Learning, New Atlantis, Of the Colours of
The Enlightenment I N T E R A C T I V E S T U D E N T N O T E B O O K How have the ideas of the Enlightenment influenced modern government? P R E V I E W Carefully analyze the image in the Introduction
Understanding the Enlightenment Reading & Questions The word Enlightenment refers to a change in outlook among many educated Europeans that began during the 1600s. The new outlook put great trust in reason
Soc 1 Lecture 2 Tuesday, January 13, 2009 Winter 2009 1 The Institutional Construction of the Self (Part 2) I. Announcements: http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/faculty/mohr/classes/soc1/ Readings available for next
Chapter 17 The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought The Ideas of Isaac Newton His law of universal gravitation showed the power of the human mind Encouraged natural philosophers to approach
1. Define Scientific Revolution. Name: Period: 10 points Scientific Revolution / Enlightenment Study Guide 2. Name the scientist who incorporated scientific thought with philosophy and helped develop the
1 Mini-Unit #2 Enlightenment (new ideas) Assessment: Determine which 2 Enlightenment thinkers had the most impact on the rights of people. Defend your choices with specific evidence from the background
Chapter 14 Scientific Revolution During the 16th and 17th centuries, a few European thinkers questioned classical and medieval beliefs about nature, and developed a scientific method based on reason and
How Ancient Greece Influenced Western Civilization and The United States Government. We can trace Western Philosophy to three main philosophers from Ancient Greece. SOCRATES PLATO ARISTOTLE Socrates and
Student Handout 3.1 University of Oxford, England. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Hobbes was born in England. He did much traveling through France and Italy. During his travels, he met the astronomer Galileo
Enlightenment Scavenger Hunt Name: (Introduction to the Historic Documents Unit) Clue # Question Answer/Notes: Mods: 1 See p. 384 in Merriam Webster s Collegiate Dictionary located in 2 places in the room:
Humanities 3 V. The Scientific Revolution Lecture 23 The State of Nature Outline Background to Hobbes Thought Hobbes and the English Civil War The Big Picture: Religion and Politics The Argument of Leviathan
French Revolution DBQ 2015/2016 Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-6. The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. This question is designed
SHORT ANSWER QUESTION GENERAL INFORMATION You will be given 4 sets of Short Answer Questions Each set is worth 3 points for a total of 12 points You will have 50 minutes to analyze any stimulus given and
REDESIGN Religion, Society, and Politics during the Enlightenment *Remember, the philosophes were people who sought to apply the rules of reason and common sense to nearly all the major institutions and
Y2 Lesson 20 Page numbers, version 12/2/15 p339: Jean-Jacques Rousseau Social Contract All page numbers below are from History of Philosophy unless otherwise indicated. His explanation of social authority
Name: Ms. Raia European History / Sec. Date: Topic 12.4 12.8: The Enlightenment & French Revolution Chapter Guide Date of Quiz: Date of Exam: This guide is to assist you in learning history from your text
Name: Date: Block: Enlightenment Thinkers Standard: SSWH13 The student will examine the intellectual, political, social, and economic factors that changed the world view of Europeans. b. Identify the major
Enlightenment Challenges Society Religion Church = Freedom Limiting Institution Most philosophes anticlerical (against influence of a hierarchical, institutional Church organization) Not necessarily against
Locke Resource Card John Locke was a British philosopher who lived from 1632-1704. In 1690 Locke published one of his more famous books, The Second Treatise of Civil Government. The book addressed many
Where are we now? The age of Kings is slowly coming to a close Europe is now moving into the modern world Ideas are changing throughout both scientifically and philosophically (Enlightenment) Change in
Terms and People public schools schools supported by taxes dame schools schools that women opened in their homes to teach girls and boys to read and write Anne Bradstreet the first colonial poet Phillis
GUIDED READING The Enlightenment in Europe A. Summarizing As you read this section, fill in the diagram by describing the beliefs of Enlightenment thinkers and writers. 1. Voltaire 2. Montesquieu 3. Jean-Jacques
Study Guide Test #4 Jan 2018 Empires and Revolutions The Rise of the State divine right / absolutism Ways that Richelieu and other centralizers [incl. New Monarchs] created the modern state 5 Principles
What did we just learn? Let s Review Key Features of the Renaissance rise of humanism ( focus on ancient Greek and Roman civilization and the dignity and worth of the individual). independence and individualism
Lesson One Document 1 A Human Equality: SELECTIONS FROM THE LEVIATHAN Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Nature has made men so equal, in the faculties of the body and mind; as that though there be found one man
The Enlightenment: Five Big Ideas Think of this as a con8nua8on of the Scien8fic Revolu8on the focus is on inves8ga8on and Reason. Start with Isaac Newton and John Locke as major influences: Natural Laws
Readings. A world redrawn: Who was Copernicus and what was his claim to fame? How did he defend his beliefs? Galileo s Daughter: Give three important facts about Galileo s life with regards to the Scientific
absolutum dominium total power Who is in charge? How do you decide who is in charge? 1 one person in charge Autocracy one person in charge dictator frequently takes control by force but not all do monarchy
POLI 342: MODERN WESTERN POLITICAL THOUGHT THE POLITICS OF ENLIGHTENMENT (1685-1815) Lecturers: Dr. E. Aggrey-Darkoh, Department of Political Science Contact Information: firstname.lastname@example.org College
1. Which of these best explains deism? (a) God exists and maintains a hands-on involvement in day-to-day events and individual lives. (b) God exists and set things in motion, but does not perform miracles
Chapter 6 Scientific Revolution During the 16th and 17th centuries, a few European thinkers questioned classical and medieval beliefs about nature, and developed a scientific method based on reason and
Chapter 4, Section 4 How ideas about religion and government influenced colonial life. The Great Awakening, one of the first national movements in the colonies, reinforced democratic ideas. The Enlightenment
V. The Key Texts of Political Philosophy An Introduction THOMAS L. PANGLE University of Texas at Austin TIMOTHY W. BURNS Baylor University ggi CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents Acknowledgments page xiii
World History 2 Enlightenment Packet Mr. Ackerman Name: Quote Analysis: Directions: Explain the quote to the best of your ability. Also, explain why you think the speaker may have made this comment (in
The Key Texts of Political Philosophy This book introduces readers to analytical interpretations of seminal writings and thinkers in the history of political thought, including Socrates, Plato, Aristotle,
George Washington Carver Engineering and Science High School 2018 Summer Enrichment Due Wednesday September 5th AP GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS In addition to the Declaration of Independence and Constitution
Second Treatise of Government, by John Locke Second Lecture; February 9, 2010 family rule is natural; why wouldn't that be the model for politics? not only natural, but religion likes it this is a difficult
French Revolution By Rush Webster, Gary Ulrich, Isabelle Herringer, Lilah Hwang The Terror, a stage of the French Revolution in which the corrupt nobility were publicly executed by the enraged and impoverished
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe, that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society
The Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution CHART #1: EVOLUTION OF ASTRONOMY YEARS THEORY RELIGIOUS IMPACT PTOLEMY COPERNICUS BRAHE KEPLER GALILEO Chart #2: Breakthroughs in Medicine
AP Euro Unit 5/C18 Assignment: A New World View Be a History M.O.N.S.T.E.R! Vocabulary Overview Annotation The impact of science on the modern world is immeasurable. If the Greeks had said it all two thousand
THE ENLIGHTENMENT I. Introduction: Purpose of the Lecture A. To examine the ideas of the Enlightenment (explore the issue of how important is the "old" kind of intellectual history) 1. Alas, Dead White
PHI 1700: Global Ethics Session 9 March 3 rd, 2016 Hobbes, The Leviathan Rousseau, Discourse of the Origin of Inequality Last class, we considered Aristotle s virtue ethics. Today our focus is contractarianism,
Unit 5 Section 1: SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION and ENLIGHTENMENT SUMMARY: In the 1500 s and 1600 s, the Scientific Revolution changed the way Europeans looked at the world. People began to make conclusions based
PreAP WC II 1819 Assignment 8 & 8e Mighty Pens and Swords Dec 6-1 3 (due) Read Quest see Chapter 8; Sources SEE BELOW Terms to take note of (may appear on a pop quiz of some kind ) Enlightenment philosophes
Transformation of the West 1400-1750 Major Interconnected Trends Renaissance 1350-1550 Scientific Revolution 1500-1700 Reformation 1517-1648 Enlightenment 1680s-1800 I. Renaissance A. See last class lecture!
1 Part One: Hub Dates Directions: Study the dates and accompanying information below. You will be quizzed on the information. All Hub Dates Exams are cumulative. 1540-1690 Scientific Revolution 1543 Copernicus,
The Rise of Democracy Unit 1: World History I. The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome A. Limited Democracy in Athens, Greece 1. Wealth determined class 2. All free adult males were citizens and could participate
AP European History Mr. Mercado (Rev. 08) Chapter 18 Toward a New World-View Name A. True or False Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space immediately
NAME: BLOCK: - CENTRAL HISTORICAL QUESTION - WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY THEMES OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT? PICTURED BELOW: Famous painting depicting the origins of the Enlightenment Joseph Wright of Derby, A Philosopher
Modern Europe- Cooke Name: January, 2015 Modern Europe Midterm Study Guide The exam is on Thursday, January 22 nd at 8:00 am (arrive by 7:50 am). Location: B435, B436 and B437 (exact room assignments for
Exhibit 1 Volume 10 April 8, 2017 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was an English philosopher who changed the way the world viewed politics. He wrote a book called Leviathan where he wrote his ideas. Hobbes believed
The Enlightenment Unit 1 Notes Important symbols to know when taking notes for the course this year. - means that the notes that need to be filled in will physically be on the slide in front of you.! means
AP Language Unit 1 Equality Big Questions Where do our ideas of equality come from? What did equality mean to our Founding Fathers? Who is included in all men? Have we achieved true equality? Are there
Mary Wollstonecraft: Believed that women are born free and equal Also believed that women can decide what is in their own interest without depending on their husbands Equal education for girls and boys
AP European History SCORING GUIDELINES Document-Based Question Evaluate whether or not the Glorious Revolution of 1688 can be considered part of the Enlightenment. Maximum Possible Points: 7 Points Rubric
Introduction to Modern Political Theory Government 1615 Professor: Jason Frank Spring 2014 307 White Hall MWF 11:15-12:05 5-6759 / email@example.com GSH 64 Office Hours: W 2-4 Kevin Duong Will Pennington
Focus on mind and heart Enlightenment power of human reason to shape the world Appealed to? Pietism emotional, evangelical religious movement stressed a dependence on God Appealed to? Both promoted power
Biographical Briefing on Baron de Montesquieu Charles Louis de Secondat was born in Bordeaux, France in 1689. In college, he studied science and history, eventually becoming a lawyer in the local government.
Intermediate World History B Unit 7: Changing Empires, Changing Ideas Lesson 1: Elizabethan England and North American Initiatives Pg. 273-289 Lesson 2: England: Civil War and Empire Pg. 291-307 Lesson
Hobbes On Citizenship Dr. Wang Li Peking University China Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 Hobbes political philosophy works The elements of law, natural and political (1640) On the citizen(1642) Leviathan(1651)