The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe, that sought

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2 The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe, that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge.

3 Movement beginning in Europe Schools of higher learning open across America Knowledge, reason, & science could improve society Best known American scientist

4 Freedom Democracy Reason

5 John Locke Baron de Montesquieu Adam Smith William Blackstone

6 Ben Franklin American thinker, diplomat, and inventor John Locke Men are all rational and capable people (Natural Rights) Life, Liberty, & Property Government must work for the people to protect Natural Rights Baron Charles de Montesquieu Division of state (federalism) and separation of powers Sir Isaac Newton Scholar and mathematician regarded as the father of physical science Thomas Paine Profound influence on public sentiment during the American Revolution Jean-Jacques Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract (1762)) conceived of a system of direct democracy in which all citizens contribute to an overarching general will that serves everyone at once

7 Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison Thomas Hooker William Penn Abigail Adams

8 John Locke: British political philosopher and physician. His ideas, especially that all men have NATURAL RIGHTS (rights that all are born with), influenced many American thinkers. Locke s Natural Rights were identified as, Life, Liberty and Property. One American Thinker, THOMAS JEFFERSON, incorporated Locke s ideas in his writing. In the Declaration of Independence Jefferson says all men have UNALIENABLE RIGHTS, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.

9 John Locke How should government operate? Early man created government for protection from abusive individuals. Thus, from the beginning, government involved a social contract among members of the group.* *described in Locke s Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)

10 Charles Montesquieu: Division of state (federalism) and separation of powers William Blackstone: English lawyer, judge and philosopher whose legal writings influenced many prominent Americans.

11 Great surge of literacy in the colonies Newspapers and book publications increase Schools are synonymous with new towns and villages

12 People are born with natural rights Government has an obligation to protect those natural rights Kings have no right to govern people, people empower government

13 The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut The Declaration of Independence The U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights

14 In the Early 1700s, many colonists lost the religious passion that had driven Pilgrims, Puritans and others to seek out a new life in America 1730s-1740s a religious revival began to sweep through the colonies lead by travelling ministers

15 The Great Awakening began in the New England Colonies and spread through the rest of the Colonial America. This movement was lead by travelling ministers who preached that inner religious emotion was more important that outward behavior. The Sermons appealed to the heart and drew large crowds

16 George Whitefield Jonathan Edwards

17

18 Religion should be deeply personal All are sinners in need of God s redemption (to be saved) Encouraged people to inspect their lives and make a commitment to change Wanted people to connect emotionally to their religion Preached Christianity to slaves

19 Protestant groups began to expand Some groups welcomed women, African-Americans and Native Americans as members of the congregation Colleges such as Princeton and Brown were created to train Ministers

20 Encouraged ideas of equality and the right to challenge authority These ideas inspired future generations to challenge the authority of the English government Lead to the American Revolution and Declaration of Independence

Terms and People public schools dame schools Anne Bradstreet Phillis Wheatley Benjamin Franklin

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