Transformation of the West

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1 Transformation of the West

2 Major Interconnected Trends Renaissance Scientific Revolution Reformation Enlightenment 1680s-1800

3

4 I. Renaissance A. See last class lecture! B. Humanism 1. Spirit of questioning tradition 2. Faith in human reason C. Affected Scientific Revolution and Reformation

5 II. Scientific Revolution A. Application of ideas of Renaissance 1. Skepticism 2. Empiricism Inductive Reasoning and the Scientific Method

6 II. Scientific Revolution B. Began discovery of laws of universe 1. Changed view of universe 2. Changed view of humans place in universe 3. Affected Reformation and Enlightenment

7 III. Reformation A. Why did Reformation occur? 1. Administrative Divisions in Catholic Church 2. Possibility of competing Popes Great Schism of Religious rituals and practices pilgrimages, veneration of saints, endowment of masses 4. Corruption and Abuses of Power in Church

8 Indulgences and Simony

9 III. Reformation A. Why did Reformation occur? 5. Desire for reform - multiple heresies during Middle Ages (Lollards, Hussites, Cathars) 6. Printing spread ideas more easily (written and image) 7. Rise of Renaissance ideas made questioning existing order more acceptable

10 III. Reformation - Protestant and Catholic theology (sample comparison) Catholic Protestant 1. Only celibate male trained priests they are Jesus 1. Accessibility by Laity: "Priesthood of all Believers" - No need for professional intermediaries (priests, confessors, etc.) between the individual and God. 2. All rites and texts in Latin 2. Bible can be in vernacular (language of worshipper) 3. Transsubstantiation - bread and wine at Communion are the blood and flesh of Christ not symbols of it 3. Some groups denied that this could happen - communion is metaphor 4. Pope as direct representative of God on Earth 4. No one person is the representative of God

11 III. Reformation - Protestant and Catholic theology (sample comparison) 5. Saints can appeal case to Christ, God, Mary 5. No saints 6. Standard set of rites including infant baptism, Last Rites 6. Rites varied by group - often had adult baptism 7. Complex theology based on interpretation and ancient tradition 7. Rejection of non-biblical traditions - clerical celibacy, monasticism, sacraments (penance, extreme unction, marriage, confirmation, ordination of ministers), pilgrimage 8. Salvation aided by good works 8. Justification by grace and faith, not by works--sometimes led to belief in predestination (Calvin).

12 III. Reformation B. Protestant Leaders - Lutheran - Martin Luther, 1521 Close in practice to Catholicism

13 III. Reformation B. Protestant Leaders - Anglican (Episcopalian) - Henry VIII of England, 1534 Close in practice to Catholicism

14 III. Reformation B. Protestant Leaders - Reformed - Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin in Switzerland, c. 1520s. Both rejected more Catholic traditions than Luther or Anglicans

15 III. Reformation B. Protestant Leaders - Anabaptists - Conrad Grebel, 1525; believed in adult rebaptism. 1. Turned radical Munster Commune in 1534/5; many slaughtered. 2. Now mainly Amish and Mennonites.

16

17 III. Reformation C. The Catholic Response: The Counter- Reformation - Organized Council of Trent ( ) to come up with ideas 1. Called for moral reform of clergy 2. Strengthening Church structures 3. Proclamation of dogmas: Affirmation of faith and works, transubstantiation 4. Establishment of Society of Jesus (Jesuits) under Ignatius Loyola teaching order

18 III. Reformation D. Some Results 1. Religious wars - Germany (Thirty Years War ), England vs. Spain 2. Internal fighting - France (most of 16th century) 3. Religion becomes politics - English succession crises 4. European nations further energized to compete among selves

19

20

21 III. Reformation D. Some Results 5. Change of social order Ex. rise of Witch Hunt from increase of need for marriage, loss of social support structure in Protestant nations 6. Affected Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

22 IV. Enlightenment A. Origins 1. Applied ideas of Scientific Revolution to human society. 2. Rejected religious extremism engendered by Reformation and Catholic Reformation 3. Rejected absolutism - Existing English ideas of constitutional government and Dutch commercial oligarchy

23 IV. Enlightenment B. Pre and Early Enlightenment Thinkers 1. Thomas Hobbes - Wrote Leviathan in 1651, which said that people are basically evil and need a monarch to rule them and maintain order. People enter a social contract to trade freedom for law and order. 2. John Locke - Wrote on idea of social contract that people were obligated to overthrow any ruler who violated the natural rights of people. He viewed people as moral and capable of deciding own fate.

24 IV. Enlightenment B. Pre and Early Enlightenment Thinkers 2. John Locke Developed idea of natural rights life, liberty, and property and divided government

25 IV. Enlightenment C. Philosophes 1. Largely French (not entirely) 2. Thinkers of the Enlightenment 3. Took ideas of Hobbes and Locke and built on them

26 IV. Enlightenment C. Philosophes 4. Believed in: a. Progress i. Developing a knowledge of the natural world and the ability to manipulate the world through technology; ii. Overcoming ignorance bred of superstitions and religions; iii. Overcoming human cruelty and violence through social improvements and government structures

27 IV. Enlightenment C. Philosophes 4. Believed in: b. Deism i. God is not active in the universe (at most) Great Clockmaker see Scientific Revolution ii. Religion should be reasonable and should result in the highest moral behavior iii. The knowledge of the natural world and the human world has nothing to do whatsoever with religion and should be sought without religious influence

28 IV. Enlightenment C. Philosophes 4. Believed in: c. Tolerance and equality - Fair, just, and productive society absolutely depends on religious tolerance; not just tolerance of varying Christian sects, but non-christian religions as well.

29 V. Outcome A. Increasing sophistication A. Technological B. Intellectual C. Economic B. Increasing ability for power C. Increasing desire for power

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