2 In 730, the Byzantine Emperor banned the use of icons. The Pope was outraged to hear that the Byzantine Emperor painted over a painting of Jesus. The Byzantine Emperor and the Pope continued to disagree for 300 years. In 1054, the Great Schism resulted in two churches: the Roman Catholic Church in western Europe and the Eastern Orthodox Church in eastern Europe.
4 In 1095, Pope Urban II launched the Crusades against the Muslims. The mission: to reclaim Jerusalem. Although the Muslims controlled Jerusalem at the end of the Crusades, medieval Europe became interested in trade once again as Christian crusaders brought back cloth and spices.
6 To end the threat of the Muslims in Europe, Christian armies drove Muslim armies out of the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) and back into Africa. As a result, many mosques in the Iberian Peninsula were converted into churches.
8 In the Spanish Inquisition, the Catholic Church created a religious court to find and punish heretics. Most often, Jews and Muslims who had converted to Christianity were tortured so that priests could determine if they had reverted to their old faith.
10 During the fourteenth century, the bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death, wiped out about half of Europe s population.
12 The Renaissance is considered the rebirth of Europe. Classical culture from the Greeks and the Romans becomes valued once again.
13 What book am I reading? 13
14 Petrarch would have read many Greek and Roman books. (Thank you, monks, for copying all of those books!)
16 At the beginning of the Renaissance, Donatello sculpted a statue of David. This nude statue, which resembles Greek and Roman nude statues, shows an interest in humanism. Renaissance thinkers began to explore and celebrate the human body.
18 The Medici were wealthy bankers (note the coins on the Medici coat of arms) who controlled the government and economy of Florence, the cradle of the Renaissance.
20 Since Christians consider money-lending to be a sin, the Medici were afraid of going to hell. To save themselves, they became patrons of artists like Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo.
22 Designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, the Santa Maria del Flore has many elements of Roman architecture, including its famous dome.
24 Leonardo da Vinci was a true Renaissance Man. He did everything from art to anatomy to engineering.
26 Michelangelo, though he first became famous as a sculptor (see his statue of David), eventually became most famous for his incredible frescos on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
28 Johann Gutenberg s printing press changed the world. Later on, books like Copernicus On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres and Galileo s Concerning the Two Chief World Systems would challenge the church and weaken its power.
31 The Catholic Church sold indulgences in order to pay for the construction of St. Peter s Basilica. These indulgences allowed people to buy their way into heaven.
33 To show his disapproval of indulgences, Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to a church door in Germany. He argued that if the Pope could grant forgiveness for sins, why not just do it for free?
35 Martin Luther s bold action in 1517 was the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. The church split once again! Now there would be three major branches of Christianity: Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant.
37 Martin Luther believed that salvation was a free gift for those who had faith in God. He believed that salvation could not be earned.
39 John Calvin started another Protestant church called the Calvinist Church. Calvin believed that all of history has already been predestined by God. Like Luther, Calvin believed that salvation could not be earned, but only because it has already been decided.
41 King Henry VIII started another Protestant church called the Anglican Church (also known as the Church of England) after the Pope would not grant him a divorce.
43 Since the Protestant Reformation began in Germany, Germany and other northern European countries became Protestant. Since the Pope lives in Rome, Italy and other southern European countries remained Roman Catholic.
45 Explorers from England brought Protestant ideas to the United States.
47 Explorers from Spain brought Roman Catholic ideas to Mexico.
49 The Catholic Church fought back with the Counter-Reformation. One key event from the Counter-Reformation was the Council of Trent. Here, Catholic Church leaders clarified teachings and corrected corrupt practices so that the Catholic Church would gain members back.
50 Geocentric Heliocentric 50
51 Before the Scientific Revolution, most people believed in the geocentric theory, which states that the sun revolves around the Earth. Copernicus proposed a new idea called the heliocentric theory, which states that the Earth revolves around the sun.
53 Copernicus struggled to predict the movement of the planets, in part because he still believed that the planets moved in a circular orbit. Kepler built on Copernicus theory by proposing that the planets moved in an elliptical orbit. Now astronomers could accurately predict the movement of the planets!
55 Galileo refined the invention of the telescope to discover sunspots, the moon s rough and rocky surface, the phases of Venus, and moons around Jupiter.
57 The Catholic Church forced Galileo to appear before the Roman Inquisition because Galileo supported the heliocentric theory in his book Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems.
59 Sir Isaac Newton used gravity to explain why the moon keeps traveling around Earth, and why the planets keep traveling around the sun.
61 After the Scientific Revolution, traditional sources of knowledge such as classical philosophers (especially Aristotle) and church authorities became less trusted. Now, people used observation and experimentation to come up with their own conclusions.
63 Galileo used the scientific method to test Aristotle s ideas about falling objects. Galileo hypothesized that two cannonballs of different masses will fall at the same speed. His hypothesis was confirmed.
65 Some scientists kept some traditional beliefs, suggesting that science was simply a way to investigate the world God had created. In particular, Sir Isaac Newton was a man of religion and science.
67 The Spanish and the Portuguese loved Asia s silk and spices, but the Italians the Muslims controlled all known trade routes to Asia. Therefore, the Spanish and the Portuguese wanted to find a new route to Asia.
69 The Portuguese found the first new path to Asia. They sailed around the southern tip of Africa.
71 Christopher Columbus tried to find yet another path to Asia, but he found something different: a land mass known as the Americas.
73 Named after Christopher Columbus, the Columbian Exchange described the exchange of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas between Europe and the Americas. I give you disease, you give me pumpkins, OK? To say the least, it was not a fair exchange.
75 Henry Hudson tried to find yet another path to Asia. Spain controlled the route around the southern tip of South America to Asia, so England needed its own route from Europe to Asia. Hudson looked for a northwest passage: a water route through North America that would connect the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Hudson never found this passage.
77 The Enlightenment thinkers provided a foundation for the government of the United States, which is a democracy.
79 John Locke valued natural rights. Locke argued that if a government failed to protect people s natural rights, then it could be overthrown. This idea inspired the American colonists to sign the Declaration of Independence and then overthrow the British government in the American Revolution.
81 Baron de Montesquieu valued separation of powers, which is evident in the three branches of government in the United States.
83 Voltaire valued freedom of speech. I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
85 Cesare Beccarria valued the rights of the accused. He opposed torture and the death penalty.
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