The Renaissance. The Rebirth of European Progress

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1 The Renaissance The Rebirth of European Progress

2 The Collapse of Rome and the Middle Ages When the western portion of the Roman Empire collapsed, much of the European continent entered a period of disunity and violence Feudalism, in which local rulers kept order for a reigning monarch (think Kings, Lords, Knights, Peasants), became the dominant political and economic system for centuries Trade with other regions, such as Middle East, North Africa, and greater Asia slowed to a trickle or disappeared altogether Comparative to the great advances of Rome, this period saw little technological progress, and was far less socially sophisticated

3 The Power of the Church In the absence of Roman government the Christian Church became the center of power on the European landscape Bishops, cardinals, and ultimately the Pope were often more powerful than lords and kings Meanwhile, in the Middle East the more advanced Islamic culture continued to advance, and had conquered the holy land (land in modern day Israel that contains Jerusalem, sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims alike) In the year 1096 the Pope (spiritual leader of Catholic Christians) called upon European leaders to free the Holy Land of Islamic control

4 Re-Exposure to a Wider World The Crusades (Christians vs Muslims for control of the Holy Land) lasted two centuries Europeans traveled back and forth from Europe to the Middle East and began to engage in trade with the more advanced cultures of the Middle East and greater Asia This exposure would eventually lead to a period of great progress for Europeans, but not before the Bubonic Plague (Black Death) would wipe out 1/3 of the continent

5 The Black Death Brings Change The depopulation of Europe brought about several changes that ushered in the Renaissance Fewer people meant that the peasants could demand more for their labor Great death and misery made many people question their religion Combined with renewed trade, these three factors lead to economic opportunities for more people, a greater interest in the world (less concerned with the Church), and a revival of education and the arts

6 The Rebirth of Europe The Renaissance is a term used to describe the cultural changes that took place from roughly 1300 to 1600 (14 th to 17 th century) in Europe It is viewed as a Golden Age in art, literature, and sciences Marked the transition from the Middle Ages to modern times in Europe End of the Church dominated Medieval Period and brought back a society in which strong central governments were in control

7 Renaissance and Reformation Study Guide Chapter 13 Will be assigned certain sections to read and answer questions about each day we take notes. Study guides will be checked in for completion at the beginning of class on the days/dates below (homework checks). Wednesday 10/4 Chapter 13.1 and 13.2 (Renaissance) Thursday 10/5 Chapter 13.5 (Scientific Revolution) Friday 10/6 Chapter 13.3(Protestant Reformation) Tuesday 10/10 Chapter 13.4(English Reformation) Answer key will be posted online before the test day so you can make corrections and study the right information for your next test.

8 The Renaissance The Rebirth of European Progress

9 The Italian Renaissance The Renaissance was centered in Italy and gradually spread north across Europe Center of economic rebirth following the Crusades Renaissance had large focus on rediscovering classical learning and ideas = Italy has most prominent connections to the legacy of Ancient Rome Italian city-states were hardest hit by the Plague, resulting in a social climate that embraced living in the now and self-discovery

10 Humanism The Renaissance had a focus on Humanism = non-religious social moment that emphasizes the value of the human experience, scientific discovery, and learning In essence, it was a revival of classical Greco/Roman ideas that had once allowed that civilization to flourish In contrast, the Middle Ages focus was on religious issues and the Renaissance focused on worldly (secular)

11 The Humanities Central to renewed interest in learning was the study of Humanities: history, literature, philosophy, languages, religion, music, and the arts Renaissance thinkers embraced these studies as a way to understand and value the human experience of life

12 Renaissance Men Thinkers and artists who studied a variety of subjects, including the sciences, came to be known as a Renaissance Man = intelligent and talented men who were skilled and knowledgeable in many things. Men, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, would champion the idea of a Renaissance Man by creating the period s best known paintings, sculptures, architecture, as well as advance medical knowledge and engineering skills

13 Sculptor, engineer, poet, painter, architect Michelangelo Most famous works include: 1. Statue of David 2. The Pieta 3. Sistine Chapel 4. Dome of St. Peters Cathedral in Rome

14 Statue of David The Pieta

15 The Sistine Chapel

16 Dome of St. Peters Cathedral in Rome: Served as model for many political structures, including Capital Building in Washington DC

17 Leonardo da Vinci Painter, sculptor, inventor, architect, musician, engineer Most famous for: 1. Painting of Mona Lisa 2. Painting of The Last Supper 3. Study of human anatomy 4. Plans for flying machines

18 The Mona Lisa The Vitruvian Man

19 The Last Supper

20 Studies of anatomy and engineering:

21 Artistic Greatness Renaissance Men created these beautiful paintings and sculptures by combining intellectual and artistic ability Renaissance art reflects social and intellectual advancement by employing new techniques such as realism (less abstract/emotion), humanist (everyday people) and perspective (3-Dimentional/math based) Middle Ages Renaissance

22 Realism = Humanist = Perspective =

23 Scientific Advancements In addition to the Humanities, thinkers of the late Renaissance period (1500s) were also focused on scientific discovery Great advancements were made in Astronomy, Mathematics, Medicine, Physics, and developing the process of discovering truth The era in human advancement is referred to as the Scientific Revolution, and often found itself at odds with the Christian Church as old ways of thinking were challenged

24 New Ways of Thinking Astronomers such as Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei proved through observation and mathematics that the Sun was the center of our solar system (Heliocentric Model), Scientific philosophers such as Francis Bacon advocated that a truth can only be known after putting it though a processes of questioning and experimentation, known today as the Scientific Method Mathematicians such as Isaac Newton formulated the laws of motion and gravity, new systems of computation (Calculus), and said that all laws of nature are mathematical and therefor understandable

25 Challenging the Church In the Middle Ages the Church taught that the Earth and heavens above were the center of the Universe, and that understanding the world came from Biblical knowledge A Heliocentric (Sun Centered) model of the Universe challenged this and brought astronomers like Galileo before the Church court to answer to charges of heresy (view contrary to Church teachings) The scientific method encouraged that truth is a process of discovery, thereby reducing the authority of the Bible

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