POLITICAL SCIENCE 3102 (B) Sascha Maicher (Fall 2014)

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1 FSS 7010 (Wednesdays 1PM-3PM) Course Evaluations: POLITICAL SCIENCE 3102 (B) Sascha Maicher (Fall 2014) 30% Three assigned summaries. Each should be 3 pages long, double spaced. There should be two pages that summarize the material assigned and one page of critical comments or observations. 20% Mid-term exam 50% Final exam Texts and Readings: Course pack from Rytek Nietzsche, Friedrich The Use and Abuse of History for Life Freud, Sigmund Civilization and Its Discontents MODERNITY What our innate human interests require of us Kant reason will give us a correctly structured society The enlightenment we are rational creatures that can use reason to perfect our world We use our reason to trade our nasty, brutish, and short life in exchange for security from the sovereign state THEMES The notion of self (and how it changed for each political theory) History (the notion of the self within history) what is the self s relation to history? Freedom (the Enlightenment; that politics should be about perusing a space of freedom) - Kant The relation of the notion of self to the thinker s conception of freedom The setting in history and its impact on the concept of freedom Sept. 05 Introduction Introduction to Modern Political Thought

2 Sept. 9The Age of the Enlightenment: Part One (1776) Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations Sept. 12 The Age of the Enlightenment: Part Two Kant: What is Enlightenment? (1784) Sept. 16 The Age of the Enlightenment: Part Three Kant: On The Common Saying This may be true in theory, but it does not apply in practice (1793) Sept. 19 The Age of the Enlightenment: Part Four Kant: Perpetual Peace Sept. 23 Democracy and Freedom: Part One The Declaration of Independence (1776) (1788) Hamilton, Madison, Jay: The Federalist Papers Sept. 26 Democracy and Freedom: Part Two Edmund Burke: Reflections on the Revolution in France ( ) SUMMARY: Burke Reflection on the Revolution in France Sept. 30 Democracy and Freedom: Part Three Oct. 3 Utilitarianism: The Dream of a Scientific Politics: Part One Oct. 7 Utilitarianism: the Dream of a Scientific Politics: Part Two SUMMARY: Mill Utilitarianism Chapters I-III Alexis De Tocqueville: Democracy In America (1835) Jeremy Bentham: Principles of Legislation (1780) John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism (1863) Chapters I-III Oct. 10 Utilitarianism: the Dream of a Scientific Politics: Part ThreeJohn Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism (1863) Chapters IV-V Oct. 21 MID TERM EXAM Oct. 24 History and Freedom: Part One Hegel: The Philosophy of Right Introduction (1821) Oct. 28 History and Freedom: Part Two Three (1821) Oct. 31 Socialism: Part I Alienation Hegel: The Philosophy of Right Part Karl Marx: Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844) Nov. 4 Socialism: Part II Materialism Karl Marx: Theses on Feuerbach (1845) Karl Marx: The German Ideology (1845)

3 Nov. 7 Socialism: Part III Communism Karl Marx: Capital (1867) Nov. 11 Socialism: Park IV Communism Karl Marx: Manifesto of the Communist Party (1858) SUMMARY: Marx Manifesto of the Communist Party Nov. 14 History and Power: Part One Nietzsche: The Use and Abuse of History for Life (1874) Nov. 18 History and Power: Part Two Nietzsche: Genealogy of Morals (1887) Nov. 21 The Early 20 th Century: Part I Freud: Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) Chapters I-IV Nov. 25 The Early 20 th Century: Part II Freud: Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) Chapters IV-VIII Nov. 28 The Early 20 th Century: Part III Max Weber: Excerpts from The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) Dec. 2 The Early 20 th Century: Part IV Max Weber: On Bureaucracy from Economy and Society (1922) The Enlightenment as the casting away of darkness and superstition Hobbes new tradition of political thought Definitely by the 17 th century, the Enlightenment has begun Break from contingent ties to metaphysical entities and becomes based in reason Hobbes & Locke political theory derived from rational necessities from being a human in war Descartes to find the truth, we must reject everything we believe. The only thing of which we can be sure is that we are thinking Doubting classics, traditions, received wisdom, etc. Coming out of the Renaissance the rediscovery of ancient texts and their authority The Enlightenment is a break from believing everything from ancient times The human being is not a static creature locked in its nature. It s a malleable being that can be improved The Enlightenment brought a new idea of the nature of human beings New optimism things can be rearranged for the better (rather than blindly accepting things as they are) What led to the Enlightenment? -Copernicus astronomy teaches us that the universe is not geocentric (rather heliocentric)

4 -Geography the world is round, not flat -Travel discovery of new civilizations Luther the development of modern political thoughts Prior, the aristocracy claimed to be appointed by God, only the clergy was literate and could access the literature which was the basis for social structure Humans control their own destiny (pre-enlightenment humans are pawns in the great fate of the human universe. Your fate is predetermined and you cannot change it) There are scientific laws, not God-given or moral laws, which give us power over the natural world (harness its energies) Using all these things, humans can change things for the better We are a blank slate when we are born. What we become is a product of our empirical experiences We should be concerned with the development of education to improve minds Optimism based in the idea of power of reason Voltaire we are naturally benevolent as human beings (unlike beasts) Alexander Pope what is natural is right

5 Newton we can discern from the visible world that it was designed by an almighty being

6

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