The Enlightenment. Main Ideas. Key Terms

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1 The Enlightenment Main Ideas Eighteenth-century intellectuals used the ideas of the Scientific Revolution to reexamine all aspects of life. People gathered in salons to discuss the ideas of the philosophes. Key Terms philosophe laissez-faire separation of powers deism social contract salon

2 The Enlightenment People to Identify John Locke Montesquieu Voltaire Denis Diderot Adam Smith Jean-Jacques Rousseau Mary Wollstonecraft John Wesley Places to Locate Paris London

3 The Enlightenment Preview Questions What was the Enlightenment? What role did religion play during the Enlightenment?

4 The German Enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant maintained his regimen so reliably that people set their clocks according to his daily walk along the street in Königsberg now named for him, The Philosopher s Walk. He is said to have missed this walk for only one short period: while reading Rousseau s Emile, he stayed at home for several days.

5 Path to the Enlightenment The Enlightenment was an eighteenthcentury philosophical movement built on the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment philosophers hoped to make a better society by applying the scientific method and reason to social problems. They talked a lot about reason, natural law, hope, and progress. (pages )

6 Path to the Enlightenment (cont.) Enlightenment philosophers thought that society was governed by natural laws just as the Newtonian physical universe was. John Locke s theory of knowledge greatly influenced Enlightenment thinkers. He argued that people are born with a mind that is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, and that knowledge comes to it through the five senses. This meant that the right influences could create a new kind of society by creating a new way of understanding. (pages )

7 Path to the Enlightenment (cont.) Enlightenment thinkers hoped to discover with the scientific method the laws that all institutions should follow to produce the ideal society. (pages )

8 Path to the Enlightenment (cont.) Are methods of understanding that work in the physical world applicable to the social world? Possible answers: Yes. Humans are physical beings like the rest of nature. No. Non-human nature is ordered by causality in a way that the social world is not. The social world emerges from freedom, reflection, and purpose. Space Bar to display the answer. (pages )

9 Philosophes and Their Ideas The Enlightenment intellectuals were called by the French name philosophe ( philosopher ). Most were writers, professors, economists, journalists, and social reformers. (pages )

10 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) The ideas of the philosophes influenced the entire Western world. To them ideas were to change the world by the rational criticism of beliefs in all areas, including religion and politics. The three greatest French philosophes were Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. (pages )

11 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) Charles-Louis de Secondat, the Baron de Montesquieu, studied governments to find the natural laws governing social and political relationships. He published his ideas in The Spirit of the Laws (1748). He identified three kinds of government: republics, despotism, and monarchies. (pages )

12 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) His analysis of the English monarchy is his most lasting contribution. He argued that the government functioned through a separation of powers controlled by checks and balances. This structure gives the greatest freedom and security for the state. Montesquieu s ideas influenced the American framers of the Constitution. (pages )

13 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) The greatest figure of the Enlightenment was the prolific writer François-Marie Arouet, known simply as Voltaire. He wrote pamphlets, plays, novels, letters, essays, and histories. (pages )

14 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) Voltaire was best known for his criticism of Christianity and his belief in religious toleration. He championed deism, an eighteenthcentury religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. Deists believe the world is like a clock that God created and set according to his natural laws, and then let run without his intervention. (pages )

15 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) Denis Diderot s most important contribution to the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades. He edited this 28-volume collection of knowledge, published between 1751 and 1772, to change the general way of thinking. Many of its articles attacked old French society and argued for religious toleration and social improvements to make society more humane. (pages )

16 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) The Encyclopedia spread the ideas of the Enlightenment. (pages )

17 Philosophes and Their Ideas (cont.) Who was the foremost deist among the influential leaders in early U.S. history? Thomas Jefferson. He even went so far as to write a deist Bible, one in which he took out all the parts that did not conform to deism. Space Bar to display the answer. (pages )

18 Toward a New Social Science The Enlightenment s belief that Newton s methods of the Scientific Revolution could discover the natural laws of society led to the creation of what we call the social sciences, such as economics and political science. (pages )

19 Toward a New Social Science (cont.) The French Physiocrats and Scottish philosopher Adam Smith founded modern economics. The Physiocrats believed that if people were free to pursue their economic selfinterest, all society would benefit. They developed the doctrine of laissezfaire ( to let [people] do [what they want] ), which argued that the government should not interfere with natural economic processes by imposing regulations. (pages )

20 Toward a New Social Science (cont.) Adam Smith gave the best expression of this approach to economics in his famous work The Wealth of Nations. Smith said the government had only three legitimate functions: protecting society from invasion (army), defending citizens from injustice (police), and maintaining public works like roads and canals that private individuals could not afford. (pages )

21 Toward a New Social Science (cont.) For centuries, punishments for crimes had often been quite cruel. One reason was that extreme punishment was necessary to deter crime in a time when the police force was too weak to ensure that criminals would be captured. In 1764, the philosophe Cesare Beccaria argued in his essay On Crimes and Punishments that punishments should not be exercises in brutality. He also argued against capital punishment, finding it absurd that the state commits murder to punish a murderer. (pages )

22 Toward a New Social Science (cont.) What contemporary approach to punishing criminals has its roots in the Enlightenment social reform movements? The approach that emphasizes rehabilitation, based on the belief that people can change and progress. Space Bar to display the answer. (pages )

23 The Later Enlightenment A new generation of philosophes emerged by the 1760s. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was the most famous. In his Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, he argued that people formed governments and laws to protect their private property, but the government relationship enslaved them. (page 522)

24 The Later Enlightenment (cont.) In The Social Contract (1762), he presented the idea of a social contract in which members of society agree to be governed by the general will, which represents what is best for society as a whole. In his novel Emile, Rousseau argued that education should nurture, not restrict, children s natural instincts. Unlike many Enlightenment thinkers, he believed that emotions, as well as reason, were important to human development. (page 522)

25 The Later Enlightenment (cont.) Critics have accused Rousseau of not practicing what he preached. His children were sent to dangerous orphanages, and he believed women were naturally subservient to men. (page 522)

26 The Later Enlightenment (cont.) In what ways are emotions important to human development? Possible answers: Emotions are needed to make a person sensitive to others, and the development of emotions adds to happiness through such experiences as love. Space Bar to display the answer. (page 522)

27 Rights of Women Mary Wollstonecraft is considered the founder of the European and American movement for women s rights. She argued that women were as rational as men and as capable of being responsible free citizens. (page 523)

28 Rights of Women (cont.) In A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Wollstonecraft identified two problems with the beliefs of many Enlightenment thinkers. Those who argued that men should rule women also argued against government based on the arbitrary power of kings. Power of men over women was equally wrong. She also argued that because women are rational beings, they should have the same rights as men in educational, economic, and political life. (page 523)

29 Rights of Women (cont.) How did Mary Wollstonecraft use the Enlightenment ideal of reason to push for women s rights? The Enlightenment proposed that all humans were capable of reason, which could be used to make progress toward a better society. Because women have reason, they also should be equal in that society. Space Bar to display the answer. (page 523)

30 Social World of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment ideas were most known among the urban upper class. They spread among the literate elite. Literacy and the availability of books were increasing greatly during the eighteenth century. Many titles were aimed at the new, middle-class reading public, which included women and urban artisans. (pages )

31 Social World of the Enlightenment (cont.) Magazines for the general public developed during this time. The daily newspaper did as well. The first was printed in London in (pages )

32 Social World of the Enlightenment (cont.) Enlightenment ideas also spread at the salon. Salons were gatherings in the elegant homes of the wealthy. The guests took part in conversations, often about the new philosophical ideas. Nobles, thinkers, artists, and government officials attended these salons. Some became very famous. (pages )

33 Social World of the Enlightenment (cont.) The women who hosted them could sway political opinion and influence literary and artistic taste. (pages )

34 Social World of the Enlightenment (cont.) What have magazines and newspapers done historically for the spread of ideas and knowledge? Magazines and newspapers spread ideas and knowledge throughout society. They were disseminated more than books and were affordable. Ideas and knowledge spread to the lower classes. Space Bar to display the answer. (pages )

35 Religion in the Enlightenment Most of the philosophes attacked the Christian churches, but most Europeans of the time were devout believers. The desire of ordinary Protestants for a greater depth of religious experience led to new religious movements. (page 525)

36 Religion in the Enlightenment (cont.) One new religious movement was Methodism. John Wesley had a mystical experience in which the gift of God s grace assured him of salvation. He became a missionary to bring the glad tidings of salvation. (page 525)

37 Religion in the Enlightenment (cont.) He preached to masses in open fields in England and appealed mostly to the lower classes. His sermons often caused people to have conversion experiences. Many Methodists helped each other do good works, which gave to the lower and middle classes a sense of purpose. Methodists stressed the importance of hard work. After Wesley s death, Methodism became a separate Protestant group. (page 525)

38 Religion in the Enlightenment (cont.) What religious revival was happening in the American colonies at this same time? The Great Awakening was happening in the American colonies. Space Bar to display the answer. (page 525)

39 Checking for Understanding Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B 1. a form of government in which the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances C 2. an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law A. philosophe B. separation of powers C. deism D. laissez-faire E. social contract A 3. French for philosopher ; applied to all intellectuals i.e., writers, journalists, economists, and social reformers during the Enlightenment Space Bar to display the answers.

40 Checking for Understanding Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. D 4. the concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone E 5. the concept proposed by Rousseau that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will, and all individuals should be forced to abide by the general will since it represents what is best for the entire community A. philosophe B. separation of powers C. deism D. laissez-faire E. social contract Space Bar to display the answers.

41 Checking for Understanding Explain the influence of Isaac Newton and John Locke on Enlightenment thinkers. Newton came up with the idea that natural laws govern the physical universe. Locke said that people are molded by experiences. Space Bar to display the answer.

42 Checking for Understanding List the primary occupations of the philosophes. Philosophes were writers, professors, journalists, economists, and social reformers. Space Bar to display the answer.

43 Critical Thinking Discuss What did Rousseau mean when he stated that if any individual wants to pursue his own self-interests at the expense of the common good, He will be forced to be free? Do you agree or disagree with Rousseau s ideas? Why?

44 Analyzing Visuals Describe the scene in the painting shown on page 521of your textbook. What activities depicted in the painting are related to economics? What elements of the picture illustrate the economic principle of laissez-faire? The scene is a busy commercial port. It represents a capitalist economy. Goods are sold to those who need and want them. Space Bar to display the answer.

45 Close Write your reaction to the Enlightenment. Imagine how you might have felt in the 1700s when faced with these new ideas. Read your ideas aloud. Using your ideas, review the ways people of the time reacted to the ideas of the Enlightenment.

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