A New World of Reason and Reform ( ) The Scien=fic Revolu=on and the Enlightenment

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1 A New World of Reason and Reform ( ) The Scien=fic Revolu=on and the Enlightenment

2 Merely Connect 1. To restore order in Europe in the 17 th century, European na=ons devised two new poli=cal systems: absolute monarchy and cons=tu=onal monarchy. Louis the 14 th and Peter the Great are good examples of absolute monarchy. all of France. 2. Meanwhile, in England by 1688, cons2tu2onal monarchy appeared. The King s=ll existed, but his power was curbed by that of parliament and the rule of law. The modern na2on- state, with its vast resources, its centralized bureaucra=c rule, its increased control over the ci=zen was born. 3. Transforma2ons in how the individual was viewed (the Renaissance), in religion (the Reforma=on), in poli=cs (Absolu=sm and the Na=on- State) were complicated by a new view of the Universe itself and what cons=tuted Knowledge. This new view was called Science.

3 Ques2oning Truth and Authority What was the Europe s view of the universe and man s place in it before Science appeared by 1550?

4 The Ptolemaic Worldview pre

5 The Catholic Church s Posi=on The Geocentric System 5

6 What Led to the Beginnings of Modern Science? The Renaissance Neo- Platonism The Discovery of the New World The Prin=ng Press

7 Earlier Developments In Our Story Come Together by 1550 To Create Science Prin=ng Press (1453) Weakening of Tradi=on due to Reforma=on (1517- ); Ques=oning of Authority Neoplatonism in Renaissance; Secularism; Human Perfec=bility; Great Chain of Being. Herme=cism. European Expansion and New Naviga=onal Technology (1492); The collapse of Absolu=sm in England (1688) Rise of Universi=es (1200)

8 The Scien=fic Revolu=on: Cast of Characters Nicolas Copernicus Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo Sir Isaac Newton The Catholic Church 8

9 Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) Catholic Destroyer of Worlds On the Revolu,on of the Celes,al Spheres

10 The Heliocentric Model 10

11 Tycho Brahe Accountant to the Stars

12 Johannes Kepler Going Beyond the Facts ( ) 12

13 Galileo ( ) Physicist and Astronomer 13

14 The Quotable Galileo Philosophy is wri9en in this grand book, the universe, which stands con,nually open to our gaze.it is wri9en in the language of mathema,cs, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures. Galileo Galilei

15 Sir Isaac Newton Bringing It All Together Sir Isaac Newton mathema=cian, astronomer, alchemist, theologian. 15

16 The Revolu=on Ptolemy in 180 b.c.e. had proposed that the universe was limited, earth- centered, and explainable only through faith and a belief in God. Newton in 1687 proposed that the universe was limitless, center- less, and mathema=cally explainable.

17 The Revolu=on in Science Spread to Study of the Human Body as Well Paracelsus Robert Boyle Andreas Vesalius William Harvey Tradi2on = Galen The Humors Rule the Body

18 Nature as a Splendid Machine Science can be used to explain the material world; the material world mirrors the spiritual world of God It is a machine of natural parts, not divine Kepler God may be a designer, but not ac=vely involved Deism = Science + Religion The scien=st as a secular priest who worships god s crea=on (the physical world) through careful study 18

19 The Scien=fic Revolu=on Redefining what Knowledge Is The scien=fic revolu=on redefined what knowledge is.

20 The Scien=fic Method Science and Provisionality of Knowledge Science does not reveal Truth so much as Error.

21 Francis Bacon and Induc2on ( ) The New Organon (1620) = the new method of finding knowledge. 21

22

23 Induc=ve Reasoning Ques=on: Do all apples grow on trees? Observe all the places where apples grow. Document and describe these places. That is, collect DATA. This DATA is one s EVIDENCE. All apples grow on trees.

24 Rene Descartes and Deduc2on ( ) What can a man be certain of? 24

25 Deduc=ve Reasoning Premise/Claim: Premise/Claim: All apples are fruits All fruits grow on trees Logical Conclusion: All apples grow on trees. If A = B and B = C, then A = C.

26 The Child of the Scien2fic Revolu2on: The Enlightenment

27 Behold! the Philosophes The Enlightenment:

28 What is the Rela2onship of the Scien2fic Revolu2on to the Enlightenment That Followed it?

29 Jean Jacques Rousseau Man is born free, and evryrwhere he is in chains. (Rousseau, sounding like Ishmael)

30 Voltaire (Francois Arouet)

31 What was the Long Term Outcome of the Age of Reason? Emphasis on the study of nature. Belief that Science can explain all. Scien=fic findings challenged the Authority of the Catholic Church. Science conflicted with the Bible in many places. How can the Bible be wrong? Conflict s=ll con=nues today. Evolu=on versus Crea=onism. Materialism versus Spirituality. The Age of Reason also challenged the authority of oppressive governments via natural rights. Reason v. Tradi=on; Secularism v. Religion; Progress v. Man s inescapeable sinfulness. 31

32 Three Key Points 1. The Scien=fic Revolu=on had several causes, such as new ideas about man s place in the universe, the ques=oning of conven=onal wisdom because of the discovery of the New World, and the Herme=c Tradi=on s stress on finding divinity IN THE PHYSICAL WORLD. 2. What linked all of the early scien=fic pioneers like Brahe and Galileo was a belief that the world was ra=onal and orderly, and that reason could discover the laws that underpinned this orderliness. 3. The applica=on of REASON was so effec=ve in explaining the physicial world, the scien=fic method was applied to other fields of knowledge and popularized by Philosophes during the Enlightenment.

33

34 The Scien=fic Method

35 Philosophy responds to Science Nature as Mechanism The Influence of Francis Bacon Rene Descartes Thomas Hobbes John Locke 35

36 Some Key Terms for Today s Chapter and Presenta2on Neo- Platonism Herme=c doctrine Copernican revolu=on Heliocentric model Empirical method Deduc=ve reasoning Cartesian dualism Scien=fic revolu=on Enlightenment philosophes

37 In- Class Essay In the =me that remains, please answer the following in- class essay ques=on. Pack your essay with historical evidence gathered from the textbook and presenta=ons in order to back your general thesis. You may use your handwriqen notes so long as they are handwriqen and your own: In what ways did the effort of monarchs to increase their power and create stability relate to the promo2on of science and the desire for greater intellectual certainty?

38 Science Today Does anyone know a scien2st? What is science? Define it How does science differ from religion? How is science similar to religion? What is technology? What is the rela2on between science and technology?

39 A Handful of Key Dates 1543 Copernicus presents heliocentric view of the universe; Andreas Vesalius publishes anatomy studies Galileo invents the telescope 1620 Francis Bacon publishes The New Instrument 1637 Descartes publishes Discourse on Method 1687 Newton publishes the Principia 1721 Montesquieu publishes The Persian Le9ers 1751 First volume of the Encyclopedia published Rousseau publishes The Social Contract

40 Science and Poli2cs Thomas Hobbes ( ) Man is self interested that is, selfish. The common state of nature is war a contest for basic resources. Hobbes Social Contract 40

41 Science and Poli2cs John Locke ( ) Essay Concerning Human Understanding Knowledge is gained from experience; ideas are not inborn. Man is Good Locke rejected concept of original sin. 41

42 John Locke " Men (are) by nature all free, equal and independent. No one can be put out of his estate (that is, can lose his liberty and property) without his own consent. The only way whereby anyone divests himself of his natural liberty and puts on the bonds of civil society is by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a community for there comfortable, safe, and peaceable living one amongst the other." 42

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