The Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 13

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1 The Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 13

2 13-1 The Renaissance in Italy (pg 224)

3 What was the Renaissance? (pg )! A New Worldview Renaissance it was a rebirth of political, social, economic, and cultural ideas that centered around and civilizations. Preservation of the old (by monks): Production of the new:! focus on the here and now, rather than death and afterlife. focus on individual achievement

4 ! A Spirit of Adventure Led to exploration! Chris Columbus! Expressing Humanism (an intellectual movement) Humanities: focus on worldly subjects such as: grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, instead of religious issues. New 10/14/13 those who were followers of humanism were the humanists.

5 Italy s Vibrant City-States (pg 226)! Renaissance a rebirth of Greek and Roman culture! Why Italy? (pg 225)! Florence and the Medicis Produced poets, artists, scholars, and scientists Medici family! Richest and in Europe.! Money=political power! patrons

6 New Slide (10/14/13): How might the above painting show the influence of Medieval art on Renaissance painters?

7 New Slide (10/14/13): What painting technique was used the above?

8 13-2 The Renaissance in the North Pg 232

9 The Printing Revolution Johann Gutenberg: (pg 232)! around 1455 he invented the printing press which produced the first complete edition of the Christian Bible by 1500, there were about million bibles in Europe, before the printing press, there were only a few thousand! Printing revolution brought immense changes: books were cheaper and easier to produce with more available books, more people learned to read printing presses spread throughout Europe exposing educated Europeans to new ideas

10 13-3 The Protestant Reformation pg 237

11 Abuses in the Church Popes living lavish! How? Indulgences-! Protests in northern Europe even before the reformation movement: scholars voice opposition

12 Martin Luther: Catalyst of Change (pg ) 1517 Martin Luther leads revolt! The 95 Theses Johann Tetzel! sold indulgences (what are they?) Effect: Martin Luther writes 95 arguments against indulgences. What did they object to?

13 ! Luther s Teachings! All Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible (which he translated into German)! wanted every town to have a school to that children could learn to read the Bible Church demanded he recant views. Luther - Reject Rome! Excommunication in 1521! Renounced authority of pope! went into hiding

14 Luther s Ideas Spread (pg 240) By 1530, Lutherans changed name to! Widespread Support Answer to corruption Princes had selfish reasons for following:

15 ! The Peasant Revolt (pg 240) Peasant supporters of Luther started a revolt in Luther s views about peasant revolt:! The Peace of Augsburg (pg 240) A settlement was reached after what event?

16 Switzerland s Reformationpg 241! John Calvin Teachings! Bible only source of salvation Predestination! Saints and sinners! True Christian lives! Calvin s Geneva (Switzerland) Set up a theocracy Harsh punishments for offenses for: Education

17 ! Spread of Calvinism Calvinism took root in Germany, France, Netherlands, England, and Scotland. Created wars with Roman Catholic Church

18 13-4 Reformation Ideas Spread

19 Radical Reformers Radical sects! Anabaptists What did Luther think of them? Religious toleration and separation of Quakers, Amish, Mennonites

20 The English Reformation! Seeking an Annulment King Henry VIII! Defender of the Faith! Wife, Catherine of Aragon Refusal of annulment! Anne Boleyn

21 ! Break With Rome Decided to take over the English church 1534 Act of Supremacy! Opposition were, some. Thomas Cranmer! (married 4 more times only one son)

22 ! The Church of England Investigating of convents Anglican Church! Religious Turmoil His son, Edward VI supported. His daughter, Mary turns against Protestants.

23 The Catholic Reformation Pope Paul III was leader of reformation.! Goal:! Council of Trent 1545 Tradition Good works Not only Bible Accountability education

24 Widespread Persecution Catholics and Protestants fostered intolerance. Catholic mobs killed Protestants. Protestants killed Catholic priests and wrecked Catholic churches.! Witch Hunts 1450 to 1750, tens of thousands killed. Many were scapegoats.! Most were:

25 ! Jews and the Reformation (pg 247) Spain expelled Jews in 1492 Italy:! Ghettos! Yellow badge How did Luther feel? - Migration to where?

26 13-5 The Scientific Revolution

27 Changing Views of the Universe! A Revolutionary Theory 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.! Galileo! Heliocentric model Telescope Controversy with church. Why?! it does move

28 A New Scientific Method! A Step-by-Step Process Hypothesis Scientific method! Bacon and Descartes Newton Ties It Together! Isaac Newton

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