Emergence of Modern Science

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1 Chapter 16 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Learning Objectives Emergence of Modern Science In this chapter, students will focus on: The developments during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, which contributed to the Scientific Revolution How the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton led to a new vision of the universe How Paracelsus, Vesalius, and Harvey contributed to the scientific view of medicine The role of women in the Scientific Revolution Why Descartes is considered the founder of modern rationalism How the ideas of the Scientific Revolution were spread, and their impact on society and religion The relationship between the intellectual, political, social, and religious developments of the period Lecture Outline I. Background to the Scientific Revolution A. Medieval Science B. Renaissance Humanists 1. Contradictions of Aristotle and Galen C. Renaissance artists and their impact on scientific study 1. Close Observation of Nature 2. Perspective and Anatomical Proportions D. Technical Problems E. Mathematics F. Hermetic Magic 1. Alchemy II. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy 260

2 Chapter 16 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: 261 III. A. Aristotle, Claudius Ptolemy and Christian Theology B. Geocentric Universe 1. Ten Spheres surrounded the Earth 2. Christianized Ptolemaic Universe C. Copernicus 1. Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) 2. On The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres 3. Heliocentric Universe 4. Creates doubt about the Ptolemaic system 5. Influences of Brahe A Revolution in Astronomy, Continued A. Johannes Kepler ( ) 1. Interest in Hermetic thought and Mathematical magic 2. Music of the Spheres 3. Laws of Planetary Motion 4. Discredits Ptolemaic System B. Galileo Galilei ( ) 1. The Telescope 2. The Starry Messenger 3. Condemned by the Church 4. Scientific leadership passes to England, France and the Netherlands IV. Isaac Newton ( ) A. Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University B. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy ( ): The Principia 1. Three Laws of Motions C. Gravity D. World seen in mechanistic terms E. God V. Advances in Medicine A. Medieval Medicine dominated by Galen B. Andreas Vesalius ( ) 1. On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543) 2. Dissection of a human body 3. Corrects Galen s errors C. William Harvey 1. On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (1628) 2. Circulation of the blood VI. Women in the Origins of Modern Science A. New Opportunities for Women B. Largely informal education C. Margaret Cavendish ( ) 1. Observations upon Experimental Philosophy 2. Grounds of Natural Philosophy 3. Attacked rationalist and empiricist approaches to scientific knowledge

3 262 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: Chapter 16 D. German Women 1. 1 of 7 German astronomers was a woman 2. Maria Winkelmann ( ) a. Discovered comet b. Rejected for a post by the Berlin Academy VII. Debate over the nature and value of women A. Women portrayed as inherently base, prone to vice, easily swayed, and sexually insatiable B. Women joined debate in the 17th century and reject this view C. Science used to perpetrate old stereotypes about women D. Scientific revolution reaffirmed traditional ideas about women s nature VIII. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind A. Rene Descartes ( ) 1. Discourse on Method (1637) 2. I think, therefore I am. 3. Separation of mind and matter 4. Cartesian Dualism 5. Father of modern rationalism IX. The Spread of Scientific Knowledge A. The Scientific Method 1. Francis Bacon ( ) a. Rejects Copernicus and Kepler; Misunderstands Galileo b. The Great Instauration (The Great Restoration) c. Correct Scientific Method built on inductive principles d. Proceed from the particular to the general e. Experimentation f. Control and domination of nature 2. Descartes a. Deduction and mathematical logic 3. Newton b. Unites Bacon s empiricism and Descartes rationalism X. The Scientific Societies A. English Royal Society 1. Informal meetings at London and Oxford 2. Received formal charter in 1662 from Charles II B. French Royal Academy 1. Informal meetings in Paris 2. Formally recognized by Louis XIV (1666) C. Societies recognized practical value of scientific research D. Both focus on theoretical work in mechanics and astronomy XI. Science and Society A. People recognized Science s rational superiority B. Science offered new ways to exploit resources for profit XII. Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century

4 Chapter 16 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: 263 A. Conflict between Science and Religion 1. Scientific beliefs triumph 2. Religious beliefs suffer B. Blaise Pascal ( ) 1. Sought to keep science and religion united 2. Mystical vision (1654) 3. Pensées (Thoughts) 4. Sought to convert rationalists to Christianity 5. Christianity not contrary to reason 6. Reason had limits Lesson Plan AP Standards 1. Intellectual and Cultural History Changes in religious thought and institutions Secularization of learning and culture Scientific and technological developments and their consequences The diffusion of new intellectual concepts among different groups Developments in elite and popular culture: religion, family, work, and ritual 2. Political and Diplomatic History The extension and limitation of rights and liberties 3. Social and Economic History Gender roles and their influence on work, social, and family structure Suggested Time 2 traditional classes or 1 block The entire chapter covers AP material. Assessment See Tutorial Quiz for Chapter 16 at Glossary Cartesian dualism: Descartes principle of the separation of mind and matter (and mind and body) that enabled scientists to view matter as something separate from themselves that could be investigated by reason. Empiricism: the practice of relying on observation and experiment.

5 264 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: Chapter 16 Geocentric conception: the idea that the earth is at the center of the universe and that the sun and other celestial objects revolve around the earth. Heliocentric theory: the idea that the sun (not the earth) is at the center of the universe. Hermeticism: an intellectual movement beginning in the fifteenth century that taught that divinity is embodied in all aspects of nature; included works on alchemy and magic as well as theology and philosophy. The tradition continued into the seventeenth century and influenced many of the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution. Querelles des femmes: arguments about women. A centuries-old debate about the nature of women that continued during the Scientific Revolution as those who argued for the inferiority of women found additional support in the new anatomy and medicine. Rationalism: a system of thought based on the belief that human reason and experience are the chief sources of knowledge. Scientific method: a method of seeking knowledge through inductive principles; uses experiments and observations to develop generalizations. Scientific Revolution: the transition from the medieval worldview to a largely secular, rational, and materialistic perspective; began in the seventeenth century and was popularized in the eighteenth. World-machine: Newton s conception of the universe as one huge, regulated, and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time, space, and motion. See interactive Flashcards for Chapter 16 at Lecture and Discussion Topics 1. The Significance of the Scientific Revolution for the Development of Western Civilization. 2. Did the Hermetic Tradition Have an Impact on the Emergence of the Scientific Revolution? 3. The Role of Isaac Newton in the Scientific Revolution. 4. Why Religions Vehemently Supported Ptolemy and Galen's System.

6 Chapter 16 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: Revolutionizing the Human Body: Implications of the New Scientific View of Humans as Complex Natural Machines. Group Work Suggestions and Possible Projects 1. Have students study both the nature and the significance of the ideas and discoveries of Copernicus and Galileo, and discuss how radical or revolutionary were those ideas and discoveries. 2. Have students answer the following question: What medical practices and knowledge of the sixteenth century are still used today? This project could possibly include an interview with a physician. 3. Have students determine what religious/theological assumptions if any have been proven or discovered by science. 4. Suggest that students debate or even role-play the trial of Galileo. 5. Assign student, individually or in groups, to examine and account for the particular patterns of development that caused the Scientific Revolution to develop and spread as rapidly as it did. In sum, why there and why then? 6. Have students examine, and perhaps discuss in class, the impact of the Scientific Revolution upon religious beliefs, religious practices, and religious institutions in the seventeenth century. 7. Suggest students explore the possible reasons and causes why the Scientific Revolution occurred in Europe rather than in Asia, the Middle East, or elsewhere. See online simulations and At the Movies activities in the Western Civilization Resource Center at Media Menu See Resource Integration Guide for Chapter 16. Handout Masters & Black Line Transparency Masters

7 266 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: Chapter 16 See Multimedia Manager and Instructor s Resource CD-ROM with ExamView Computerized Testing. Test Bank For an online Test Bank, see Chapter 16 in Instructor Resources at Suggested Readings See comprehensive list of suggested readings at the end of Chapter 16. Web Exercises See Internet Exercises for Chapter 16 at Document Based Questions Directions: The following question is based on the listed documents, available on the corresponding pages in your textbook. Some of the documents have been edited or excerpted. You will be graded based upon the Advanced Placement European History standards for Document Based Questions (DBQs). According to the College Board, DBQs are designed to test your ability to: understand some of the principal themes in modern European history, analyze historical evidence and historical interpretation, and express historical understanding in writing. Part A: Answer the questions that pertain to each document. The questions are designed to help build your understanding of the documents and develop your ability to analyze documents during the beginning of the course. Some of the questions ask you to utilize knowledge outside of the documents. Although you are not required to use outside knowledge on the exam, outside historical context may earn you a higher score. The Advanced Placement examination and DBQs in later chapters will not contain these questions. Part B: The Advanced Placement examination will require you to write an essay based on a series of documents. You will see the following instructions on the examination:

8 Chapter 16 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: 267 Write an essay that: Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. Uses a majority of the documents. Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors points of view. You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents. Question: Using the documents and illustrations, analyze the challenges science made to the status quo during the Scientific Revolution and the ways in which the church and scientists attempted to address and reconcile those challenges. To what extent did the ideas of the Scientific Revolution challenge traditional religious, social, and political institutions? How did the church and scientists address these new, challenging ideas? Background: The Scientific Revolution refers to a major intellectual shift during the 16 th and 8 th centuries that emphasized reason based on observation over faith. Key figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, and Newton, presented challenges to the traditional worldview. Part A Questions A. Document: Magic and Science: The Case of Girolamo Cardano What occult phenomenon does Cardano claim to have experienced? How might the Hermetic tradition have contributed to the Scientific Revolution? B. Illustrations: Medieval Conception of the Universe and The Copernican System To what extent does this diagram reflect the Medieval worldview? How did the Copernican system change the Medieval diagram? To what extent does accepting the Copernican system mean making changes to the Medieval worldview? C. Document: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Which sources did Copernicus consult? What did he find in these sources? Why does Copernicus feel the need to explain his doubts and process so thoroughly? D. Document: Kepler and the Emerging Scientific Community

9 268 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: Chapter 16 What were Kepler s major discoveries? For what does Galileo praise Kepler? What does Galileo say he would do if more people were like Kepler? What arguments does Kepler make for Galileo publishing his ideas? Why might Germany have a better political climate than Italy for Galileo to publish his ideas? E. Document: The Starry Messenger How did Galileo create a telescope? What observations did he make with the telescope? Why did the Catholic Church see these observations as a challenge? What was the outcome of this conflict? F. Document: Newton s Rules of Reasoning What were Newton s major discoveries? In your own words, what are Newton s Rules of Reasoning? To what extent do Newton s Rules represent an acceptance or rejection of Hermeticism? Why were Newton s ideas most likely accepted more quickly in England than on the continent? G. Document: The Natural Inferiority of Women What proof does Spinoza present that women are naturally inferior? In what ways does Spinoza use science to support the traditional view of women? H. Document: The Father of Modern Rationalism What are the steps in discovering the truth according to Descartes? What did Descartes ideas contribute to the scientific method? I. Document: Pascal: What Is a Man in the Infinite? What is Pascal s thesis in this passage? What is Pascal s goal in Pensees? To what extent did Pascal succeed in his goal?

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