2 The Enlightenment The Enlightenment was an 18 th Century intellectual movement primarily among the upper and upper-middle class philosophes, that stressed the application of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of life. Frontispiece of Diderot s Encyclopedie (1751 edition) *HINT: It is an allegory*
3 The Enlightenment Core Ideas Rejection of traditional/institutional Christianity Secularization vs. Divine Revelation deism, atheism Materialism Rejection of tradition for tradition s sake Have courage to use your own understanding! Individualism/Liberty/Natural Rights All political, religious, social, economic institutions/systems subject to rational skepticism, criticism, deconstruction Embracement of ideas of the Scientific Revolution (inductive reasoning, empiricism, rationalism) Transition from work that revealed God to natural revelations independent of traditional Christianity Rejection of religious intolerance, contradictions, censorship Application of Natural Laws (Newton) economy, society, politics, human behavior Progressive & Destructive Progress confidence in the power of reason & pursuit of perfection Urban (Parisian) movement: Salons Inevitability of Conflict: Enlightenment thinkers desire change, Ancien Regime seeks stability and preservation of power and institutions
4 Immanuel Kant An Answer to the Question: What is the Enlightenment? (1784) Definition of the Enlightenment Enlightenment is man's emergence from his selfimposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another. Sapere Aude! [dare to know] Have courage to use your own understanding! --that is the motto of enlightenment. PUT THIS INTO YOUR OWN WORDS
5 Challenges to Becoming Enlightened It is so easy to be immature. If I have a book to serve as my understanding, a pastor to serve as my conscience, a physician to determine my diet for me, and so on, I need not exert myself at all. I need not think, if only I can pay: others will readily undertake the irksome work for me. The guardians who have so benevolently taken over the supervision of men have carefully seen to it that the far greatest part of them (including the entire fair sex) regard taking the step to maturity as very dangerous, not to mention difficult. Having first made their domestic livestock dumb, and having carefully made sure that these docile creatures will not take a single step without the go-cart to which they are harnessed, these guardians then show them the danger that threatens them, should they attempt to walk alone. Now this danger is not actually so great, for after falling a few times they would in the end certainly learn to walk; but an example of this kind makes men timid and usually frightens them out of all further attempts. WHO ARE THE GUARDIANS IN THE LATE 18 TH C.? WHAT DO THEY WANT?
6 Immanuel Kant (cont.) Follow orders, but criticize as a scholar Freedom vs. Control the Role of Officer, the Citizen the Pastor Nothing is required for this enlightenment, however, except freedom; and the freedom in question is the least harmful of all, namely, the freedom to use reason publicly in all matters. But on all sides I hear: "Do not argue!" The officer says, "Do not argue, drill!" The tax man says, "Do not argue, pay!" The pastor says, "Do not argue, believe!" In this we have examples of pervasive restrictions on freedom. Pay taxes but question the injustice WHAT WOULD BE HIS ENLIGHTENMENT INSPIRED ADVICE TO THESE FOLKS? IMPLICATIONS? Preach the doctrine, but carefully arrive at your conclusions
7 I. Paths to the Enlightenment A. Popularization of science Bernard de Fontanelle (French, ) Famous work: Plurality of Worlds
8 B. Skepticism? Pierre Bayle (French, ) Famous work: Historical and Critical Dictionary
9 C. Impact of travel Literature James Cook noble savage Cultural relativism
10 D. Legacy of Issac Newton -Newtonian world machine -attempt to discover the natural laws of politics, economics, justice, religion and the arts
11 d. Legacy of Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Tabula rasa
12 John Locke Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas:- How comes it to be furnished?
13 Locke (continued) He that attentively considers the state of a child, at his first coming into the world, will have little reason to think him stored with plenty of ideas, that are to be the matter of his future knowledge.
14 30 Second Pause What do you think? Are we born with certain ideas/abilities, or are we a tabula rasa?
15 II. The Philosophes A. Who were they? -literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, and social reformers -mostly from the nobility and middle class
16 B. The Reading Public Expansion of literacy Literacy rate in 1780s France Men: 47% Women: 27% Beginnings of newspapers & magazines Demand for different types of literature Growing power of educated middle class public opinion
17 C. Censorship Why were they censored? Strength of censorship? Effects of censorship Writers worked around it Readers developed taste for forbidden books
18 D. Paris: Heart of the Enlightenment were the Salons Conducted by salonniéres Madame de Geoffrin Planning of salons Promotion of talent and creativity over nobility Survival of salons after the French Revolution Influence in political affairs
19 A. Baron de Montesquieu (French, ) or Charles de Secondat Persian Letters critical Church and monarchy The Spirit of the Laws 1748 Comparative study of governments Praise of England freedoms? Separation of powers Protection from absolute monarchies
20 B. Voltaire (French, ) or Francois-Marie Arouet Philosophic Letters on the English Calas affair Jean Calas (Protestant) accused of murdering son for becoming Catholic Treatise on Toleration 1763 Crush the infamous thing! Candide humor to attack
21 Deism- God created the universe and lets it run according to its own natural laws without any direct involvement
22 Voltaire I shall never cease, my dear sir, to preach tolerance from the housetops Doubtless, I shall never see the fruits of my efforts, but are seeds which may one day germinate.
23 Voltaire (continued) Tolerance has never brought civil war; intolerance has covered the earth with carnage.
24 Voltaire If there were no God it would be necessary to invent one. *Religion is desired for it provides a moral foundation to live on. Religion also helps to limit anti-social behavior.
25 I do not agree with a word you say but I will defend to the death you right to say it.
26 C. Denis Diderot (French, ) Encyclopedia 1751 Helped spread ideas Change French society
27 Denis Diderot Men and their liberty are not objects of commerce; they can be neither sold nor bought nor paid for at any price.
28 D. Immanuel Kant Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own intelligence! is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.
29 Kant (continued) It is so comfortable to be a minor! If I have a book which provides meaning for me, a pastor who has a conscience for me, a doctor who will judge my diet for me and so on, then I do not need to exert myself.
30 Kant (continued) All that is required for this enlightenment is freedom namely, the freedom for man to make public use of his reason in all matters.
31 E. David Hume (Scottish, ) Treatise on Human Nature science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature
32 F. Mary Wolstonecraft published an essay called A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in Wolstonecraft promoted women s rights in education, jobs, and politics.
33 2. Contradictions a. If it was wrong for a monarch to have absolute power over the citizens or a slave owner to control a slave, why must women obey men? b. If reason is innate in all humans, why are women entitled to the same rights as men?
34 30 Second Pause What do you remember about the economic philosophy of mercantilism?
35 B. Francois Quesnay (French, ) Physiocrats Claimed to uncover natural laws that govern economics Principles 1. Only true source of wealth is land 2. Laissez-faire let people do as they choose Don t mess with natural laws of supply & demand Different from mercantilists
36 C. Adam Smith (Scottish, ) The Wealth of Nations (1776) 1) condemned mercantilists support of tariffs; championed free trade 2) only true source of wealth is labor
37 Adam Smith (Scottish, ) 3) championed laissez-faire; also, said gov t should confine itself to three tasks Protect society from invasion Protect citizens rights Public works economic liberalism
38 V. Political Science and the Social Contract
39 A. Thomas Hobbes wrote the book Leviathan in The horrors of the English Civil War convinced Hobbes that all humans were naturally selfish and wicked.
40 2. Without governments to keep order, life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
41 3. Hobbes social contract stated that the people should give power to an absolute monarch in exchange the people gain law and order.
42 4. Because people acted in their own self interests, the ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control. People are naturally evil.
43 B. John Locke s wrote the book The Second Treatise of Government in The English Civil War convinced Locke that the king should not have divine right of kings. Instead, the Parliament and the people should have power and rights.
44 2. In the state of nature each individual has the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. People are naturally good.
45 3. Locke s social contract has the people giving power to the government, in exchange the government protects the people s natural rights.
46 4. If government fails to protect the natural rights of the people, the people have the right to overthrow the government.
48 5. Economics a. All unused land is in the state of nature.
49 b. Anyone who uses the land and makes it produce something has the right to own the land since they made the land productive.
50 c. Those who cause the land to produce are good for society because they add to the wealth of society.
51 d. Those who labor for the land owners make a contract with the land owner. The land owner pays the laborer for making the land productive. If the laborer is unhappy with his pay, the laborer may make a contract with another owner.
52 C. Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote the Social Contract in Rousseau s social contract was an agreement among free individuals to create a society and a government.
53 2. Society is to be governed by the general will. 3. The general will represent whatever is best for the entire community. 4. Liberty was achieved through being forced to follow what was best for all people because what was best for all was the best for the individual.
54 4. Rousseau s philosophy of a much broader democracy inspired the leaders of the French Revolution to overthrow the monarchy in 1789.
55 VI. Impact of the Enlightenment A. Belief in Progress 1. The successes of the Scientific Revolution gave people confidence that human reason can solve social problems.
56 2. Philosophers and reformers urged an end to slavery, social inequality, and improvements in education. 3. Through reason a better society was possible.
57 B. A More Secular Outlook on Life 1. No more blind acceptance of religious teachings.
58 2. The mysteries of the universe could be solved by mathematically explaining it.
59 3. Religious tolerance was promoted while religious superstition and fear declined.
60 C. Importance of the Individual 1. The Church and the monarchies declined in importance.
61 2. The belief that the government was formed by individuals to promote their welfare.
64 Influence of Locke on the US: Social contract Natural right Right to overthrow an abusive govt Idea of property ownership Role of the worker and the owner
65 Influence of Voltaire on the US: -Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Press
66 C. Influence of Montesquieu on the US: -separation of powers and checks and balances
67 Influence of Wolstonecraft on the US: -promotion of women s rights and forming women s rights groups
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