Renaissance. Humanism (2) Medici Family. Perspective (2)

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1 Renaissance Humanism Medici Family Perspective A new age that began in the 1300s and reached its peak around Marked a transition from medieval times to the early modern world. Literally meaning rebirth, it was a time of creativity and great change in many areas political, social, economic, and cultural. Marked a slow shift from an agricultural to an urban society in which trade assumed greater importance. An intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics. Studied the classical culture of Greece and Rome but used that study to increase their understanding of their own times. Emphasized subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history. Wealthy family of Florence and ranked among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe. Family members were generous patrons, or financial supports, of the arts. Their wealth and influence transformed Florence. This artistic technique of making distant objects smaller allowed Renaissance artists to create realistic art that appeared thee- dimensional.

2 Renaissance Art This art reflected the ideas of humanism. Artists portrayed religious themes, however, they were portrayed as more realistic and more human. Studied Greek and Roman works and revived many classical forms. Medieval Art Lacks humanistic qualities. Religious figures over- emphasized, larger than life, holy. Perspective drawn inaccurately. Lesser quality.

3 Printing Press Impact on Europe Indulgences Martin Luther and 95 Theses Books were faster and easier to make, which led to an increase in literacy and education in Europe. Europeans were exposed to new ideas such as the Protestant Reformation and discoveries of the Scientific Revolution. In the Roman Catholic Church, these were pardons for sins committed during a person s lifetime. These lessened the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory. By the late 1400 s, these could be bought with money. Secular King Henry VIII: Reasons for breaking away from Catholic Church. Catholic Counter Reformation (Primary Goal) German monk and professor of theology. Created, arguments against indulgences. Argued that indulgences had no basis in the Bible, that the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved only through faith. Was excommunicated by Pope Leo X Having to do with worldly, rather than religious matters; nonreligious. Originally stood against the Protestant revolt. However, after the Catholic Church refused to annul his marriage he was furious and decided took over the English church. Took the English church away from the pope s control and placed it under his rule. Across Northern Europe, this movement was lead by Pope Paul III. Set out to revive moral authority of the Catholic Church and fight back against Protestant influence. Wanted to end corruption within the papacy itself.

4 Roman Inquisition Forbidden Book Lists Geocentric Model Fight against Protestantism. Church court set up during the middle ages, used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root heresy. Banned works that were considered too immoral or irreligious for Catholics to read. Included works by Luther and Calvin. Heliocentric Model This view was accepted by the Catholic Church to be absolute truth. The idea that the solar system revolves around Earth. Galileo s discoveries caused an uproar because his observation of this model contradicted ancient views about the world. Church condemned him because his ideas challenged the Christian teaching that the heavens were fixed in position to Earth, and perfect.

5 Jesuits Council of Trent Niccólo Machiavelli Reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy New religious order. Included spiritual and moral discipline, rigorous religious training, and absolute obedience to the church. Became advisors to Church. Furthered the Catholic Cause by becoming advisors to Catholic rulers, helping them combat heresy in their lands. Set up schools that taught humanist and Catholic beliefs. Established the direction that the Catholic Counter- Reformation should take. Met off and on for 20 years. Took steps to end abuses in the church. Provided penalties for corruption among clergy and established schools to create better- educated clergy who would challenge Protestant teachings. Wrote The Prince, a book of advise for rulers on how to stay in power. His work differed from earlier political philosophy because he dealt with harsh reality rather than idealized scenarios. Historically it was the center of what was once Ancient Rome. Also, Mediterranean trade had greatly increased wealth as well as cultural diffusion from the Middle East.

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