1 Readings. A world redrawn: Who was Copernicus and what was his claim to fame? How did he defend his beliefs? Galileo s Daughter: Give three important facts about Galileo s life with regards to the Scientific Revolution.
2 Welcome Back! Bell Ringer: As a review, In pairs, and with your knowledge of the Dutch Republic, Create a thesis state from your Document Based Question.
3 Agenda and Objective Agenda- note review, Primary source activity. Objective- Through note taking and primary source discussion students will be able to identify important individuals of the scientific revolution.
4 Activity: Galileo Galilei ( ) Galileo s Daughter: Give three important facts about Galileo s life with regards to the Scientific Revolution.
5 Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment
6 Review: Medieval view of the world Primarily religious and theological Political theory based on divine right of kings Society largely governed by Church views, traditions, and practices Superstition played major role in the lives of the people Scientific thought in the early-16th century was still based on Medieval ideas Views about the universe were largely influenced by the ancient ideas of Aristotle The geocentric view held that the earth was the center of a static, motionless universe Science was essentially a branch of theology
7 Causes of the Scientific Revolution Medieval universities provided the framework. By 1300, philosophy had become an accepted discipline (in addition to law, medicine, and theology). Medieval philosophers developed a degree of independence from theologians and a sense of free inquiry. Major scientific figures either studied or taught at universities. The Renaissance stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics
8 Causes Navigational problems on sea voyages in the age of overseas expansion created a need for scientific advances The Scientific Revolution became the major cause of the new world view of the 17th and 18th centuries
9 16 th Century--Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1543) Heliocentric view: argued that the earth revolved around the Sun and that the sun was the center of the universe Seemed to challenge the Bible s Book of Genesis that also put forth a geocentric view Martin Luther and John Calvin condemned Copernicus theory; pointed to Biblical passages supporting the Medieval view. the Catholic Church proclaimed the Copernican theory as false and persecuted those who advanced his views (e.g. Galileo)
10 Moreover, since the sun remains stationary, whatever appears as a motion of the sun is really due rather to the motion of the earth. I can well appreciate, Holy Father (Paul III), that as soon as certain people realize that in these books which I have written about the Revolutions of the spheres of the universe I attribute certain motions to the globe of the Earth, they will at once clamor for me to be hooted off the stage with such an opinion. Mathematics is written for mathematicians To know that we know what we know, and to know that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.
11 Two Views The Christian Aristotelian cosmos The sky according to Copernicus
12 Tycho Brahe ( ) Europe s leading astronomer in the late-16th century Built the best observatory in Europe and collected massive data on his observations of the universe His data later proved Copernicus theory
13 That the machine of Heaven is not a hard and impervious body full of various real spheres, as up to now has been believed by most people. It will be proved that it extends everywhere, most fluid and simple, and nowhere presents obstacles as was formerly held, the circuits of the Planets being wholly free and without the labor and whirling round of any real spheres at all, being divinely governed under a given law.
14 Johannes Kepler ( ) Mathematically proved the Copernican theory Developed three laws of planetary motion: Orbits of planets are elliptical Planets do not move at uniform speed while in their orbits The time it takes for a planet to orbit the sun is directly based on its distance from the sun.
15 Francis Bacon ( ) Formalized the empirical method (or empiricism) that had already been used by Brahe and Galileo Inductive method for scientific experimentation
16 The 17th Century Galileo Galilei ( ) Developed the laws of motion Acceleration experiment: gravity was a universal force that produced uniform acceleration All falling objects descend with equal velocity regardless of their weight Law of inertia: an object that is in motion remains in motion until it is stopped by some external force
17 Activity: Galileo (Google Classroom) Read the account between Galileo and the Church. Answer the questions that are provided.
18 Welcome Back! Bell Ringer: Share your findings about Galileo s experience in front of the Inquisition with your neighbor. Agenda and Objective: Through note review and primary source analysis, students will identify impact of the scientific revolution on European Society.
19 Galileo Validated Copernicus heliocentric view with the aid of a telescope was the first to use the telescope as a scientific instrument; he built one himself demonstrated that the moon and other planets were not perfectly round like a crystal sphere (the prevailing Medieval view) discovered the 4 moons of Jupiter Galileo s findings became controversial in Catholic countries His views were largely supported in Protestant northern Europe where reformers had questioned Catholic doctrines The Catholic Church in 1616 declared Copernican theory to be heretical 1633, The inquisition of Pope Urban VII forced Galileo to retract his support of the Copernican theory
20 Rene Descartes ( ) Discourse on Method: advocated the use of deductive reasoning. Employed deductive reasoning (reasoning from general principles to detailed facts) cogito ergo sum ( I think; therefore, I am ) His proof depended on logic alone
21 Believed science must: 1. start with clear and incontrovertible facts 2. subdivide each problem into as many parts as necessary, using a step-by-step logical sequence Cartesian Dualism divided all existence into the spiritual and the material. The spiritual can only be examined through deductive reasoning (logic) The material is subject to the experimental method.
22 Modern Scientific Method: inductive method (of Bacon) + the deductive method (of Descartes)
23 Welcome back! Bell Ringer: With your reading, define the term Enlightenment Agenda and Objective- Through note taking and primary source discussion students will be able to identify important individuals of the Enlightenment.
24 Isaac Newton ( ) Incorporated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo into an overarching theory explaining order and design to the universe. Wrote Principia in 1687 Perhaps the greatest book on science ever written Principle of universal gravitation: Every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship Since these natural laws are unchangeable and predictable, God s active participation in the natural world is not needed to explain the forces of nature
25 directly challenged Medieval beliefs This view came to be the foundation of the Enlightenment view of God: deism
26 Need help Remembering? Memory Device for Scientific Revolution: C ops B ring K ids G reat B ig D onuts N ow Copernicus Brahe Kepler Galileo Bacon Descartes Newton
27 Impact of the Scientific Revolution on Society Royal scientific societies Led directly to the Enlightenment Improvements in exploration Spirit of experimentation perhaps helped accelerate the agricultural revolution Improvements in medical knowledge helped improve the quality of life later Reduced support for witch hunts by discrediting superstition and witchcraft as fallacies.
28 With Religion no attempt in 17th and 18th centuries to secularize science Scientists believed they were studying and analyzing God s creation. Universal agreement among scientists and philosophers regarding the supernatural origin of the universe. Debate centered on the extent to which God continued to be involved in his Creation.
29 The Enlightenment
30 The Enlightenment Emergence of a secular world view for the first time in human history Fundamental notion was that natural science and reason could explain all aspects of life Belief in autonomy of man s intellect apart from God. Most basic assumption: faith in reason rather than faith in revelation (rationalism)
31 With Religion Deism: religious arm of the Enlightenment existence of God was a rational explanation of the universe and its form. God was a deistic Creator a cosmic clockmaker The universe was governed by natural law, not by a personal God ( ghost in the machine. )
32 Belief that the scientific method could explain the laws of society Progress in society was possible if natural laws and how they applied to society could be understood Education was seen a key to helping society to progress
33 John Locke Two Treatises of Civil Government, Philosophical defense for the Glorious Revolution in England. State of nature: humans are basically good but lack protection This contrasts with Hobbes view of humans in a state of nature: nasty and brutish
35 Governments provide rule of law but only through the consent of the governed The purpose of government is to protect natural rights of the people: life, liberty and property Right to rebellion: People have a right to abolish a government that doesn t protect natural rights.
36 Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1690 One of the great works of the Enlightenment, along with Newton s Principia Stressed the importance of the environment on human development: Education was the key tabula rasa: the human mind was born as a blank slate and registered input from the senses passively. saw all human knowledge as the result of sensory experiences without any preconceived notions Rejected Descartes view that all people are born with certain basic ideas and ways of thinking. For progress to occur in society, education was critical in determining human development. Undermined the Christian view that humankind was essentially sinful
37 Quote interpretation IF man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if he be absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal to the greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with his freedom? why will he give up this empire, and subject himself to the dominion and controul of any other power? (Locke, Sec 123)
38 To which it is obvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kings as much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part no strict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe, very unsecure (Locke, Sec 123).
39 IF man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if he be absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal to the greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with his freedom? why will he give up this empire, and subject himself to the dominion and control of any other power? (Locke, Sec 123)
40 To which it is obvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kings as much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part no strict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe, very unsecure (Locke, Sec 123).
41 Welcome Back! Bell Ringer: Explain the Differences between John Locke and Thomas Hobbes in regards to man s relationship to government? Agenda and Objective: Through note review, students will identify important Philosophers of the Enlightened period.
42 The Philosophes Committed to fundamental reform in society By 1775, much of western Europe s educated elite had embraced the Enlightenment Believed in progress through discovering the natural laws governing nature and human existence. Radically optimistic about how people should live and govern themselves.
43 The Philosophes The philosophes were French social critics in the mid- 1700s. Paris becomes the center of the Enlightenment Paris is home to salons gatherings where thinkers (philosophes) meet to discuss ideas.
44 Voltaire ( ) Perhaps the most influential of all Enlightenment philosophers Strong deist views -Believed prayer and miracles did not fit with natural law Believed that human reason was the key to progress in society, not religious faith His social criticism inspired a call for change, setting the stage for the French Revolution called for religious toleration. His most famous quote against religious intolerance was crush the infamous thing ( Ecracsez l infame )
45 Voltaire Advocated enlightened despotism (a more benevolent form of absolutism) believing that people were incapable of governing themselves His views influenced several Enlightened Despots including Frederick the Great of Prussia (who invited Voltaire to live in his court in Berlin), Catherine the Great of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Napoleon of France. Believed in equality before the law but not in the equality of classes.
46 Baron de Montesquieu ( ) Member of the French nobility; hated the absolutism of Louis XIV. Spirit of the Laws (1748): called for separation of powers in government into three branches (monarchy, nobility and the rest of the population)
47 Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( ) Social Contract (1762) Believed that too much of an emphasis on property, and not enough consideration of people, was a root cause of social injustice. The general will, a consensus of the majority, should control a nation. This strongly implied democracy.
48 Though considered part of the Enlightenment, Rousseau is more accurately seen as a founder of the Romantic Movement. After the French Revolution, the Enlightenment s emphasis on reason gave way to a glorification of emotion. Rousseau believed that man in a simpler state of nature was good a noble savage and was corrupted by the materialism of civilization. Emile (1762) Believed in progressive education; learning by doing; self-expression encouraged. Ironically, he left his 5 illegitimate children in an orphanage instead of educating them.
49 Denis Diderot ( ) The Encyclopedia (completed in 1765) Perhaps the greatest and most representative work of the philosophes Compendium of political and social critiques from various Enlightenment philosophers and authors Sought to teach people to think critically and objectively Was banned in France; the pope placed it on the Index of Prohibited Books
50 Marquis di Beccaria On Crimes and Punishment (1764) His views influenced the Enlightened Despots: Frederick the Great of Prussia banned torture Catherine the Great restricted use of torture Joseph II of Austria banned torture and the death penalty (but not necessarily other harsh punishments) Sought to humanize criminal law based on Enlightenment concepts of reason and equality before the law Punishment for a crime should be based rationally on the damage done to society; should not be linked to the religious concept of sin Opposed death penalty except for serious threats against the state
51 Economic Theory in the Enlightenment Francois Quesnay ( ) Sought to reform the existing agrarian system by instituting laissez faire in agriculture Believed the French government and nobility had too much control over land which stifled agricultural production Adam Smith ( ): Wealth of Nations (1776) Considered the Bible of capitalism. Believed the economy is governed by the natural laws of supply and demand. In a free market economy, competition will encourage producers to manufacture most efficiently in order to sell higher quality, lower cost goods than competitors. Gov t regulation only interferes with this natural self-governing style.
52 Enlightened Despots
53 Later Enlightenment (late 18th century) Became more skeptical (and in the case of Hume and d Holbach, even atheistic) Baron Paul d Holbach ( ) System of Nature Argued humans were essentially like machines, completely determined by outside forces (determinism). His staunch atheism, determinism and attacks on Christianity undermined the Enlightenment
54 David Hume ( ) Argued against faith in both natural law and faith As a skeptic, Hume claimed that human ideas were merely the result of sensory experiences; thus, human reason could not go beyond what was experienced through the senses. Undermined Enlightenment s emphasis on reason.
55 Jean de Condorcet ( ) Progress of the Human Mind His utopian ideas also undermined the legitimacy of Enlightenment ideas. Identified 9 stages of human progress that had already occurred and predicted the 10th stage would bring perfection.
56 Immanuel Kant ( ) greatest German philosopher of the Enlightenment Separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge. Science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality. Categorical imperative was an intuitive instinct, placed by God in the human conscience. Yet, both ethical sense and aesthetic appreciation in human beings were beyond knowledge of science. Reason is a function of the mind and has no content in and of itself.
57 Enlightened Despots! The philosophes inspired and supported the reforms of the Enlightened Despots Believed absolute rulers should promote the good of the people Yet believed, like Hobbes earlier, that people were not capable of ruling themselves Reforms of the Enlightenment were modest 1. Religious toleration 2. Streamlined legal codes 3. Increased access to education 4. Reduction or elimination of torture and the death penalty
58 Enlightened Despots Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia reformed education and justice system; granted religious freedom and tolerated religious differences; abolishes torture, but fails to end serfdom. Exerted tight control over subjects, but saw himself as a servant of the state. Distributed seeds and tools to peasants.
60 Joseph II of Austria allows freedoms of worship and the press. Abolishes serfdom, but the practice is reinstated after his death. Most radical of enlightened despots granted toleration to Protestants and Jews. Ended censorship and tried to control the Catholic Church -sold church property to build hospitals.
61 Catherine the Great of Russia seeks to abolish capital punishment and torture, but effort fails; responds to peasant revolt by giving nobles more power over serfs. Was interested in Enlightenment ideas but intended to give up no power made some limited reforms in law and government. Granted nobles a charter of rights and criticized the institution of serfdom.
62 Impact of the Enlightenment on society Emergence of a secular world view of the universe (for the first time in Western history) Enlightened despotism in Prussia, Russia, Austria and France (Napoleon) American and French Revolutions (as a result of classical liberalism) Educational reform in various countries Growth of laissez faire capitalism in the 19th century during the early industrial revolution in England and in 19th-century America
63 Welcome Back Bell Ringer 10 minutes For Friday The Enlighten Despots! Read Locke s Two Treatise. Summarize each paragraph into 1-2 sentences. Agenda and Objective- Through note taking and discussion students will be able to identify important individuals of the Enlightenment.
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