Chapter 13. Reformation. Renaissance

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1 Renaissance " French for rebirth" Developed after the crusades when the ideas of humanism created an environment of curiosity and new interest in the individual Chapter 13 Renaissance and Reformation, Reformation Many new churches were created after questioning attitude of the Roman Catholic church and its practices

2 Who Information Leonardo da Vinci Machiavelli Petrarch Humanist Gutenberg Erasmus More Martin Luther Charles V Calvin Henry VIII Mary Tudor Elizabeth Ghetto Copernicus Bacon Boyle Newton

3 Information What The Renaissance Humanism Vernacular Indulgences The Reformation Predestination The Scientific Revolution

4 Information When 1300 to 1650

5 Information Where Italy Europe Spain

6 Knowledge The Renaissance In Italy The Renaissance began with the emergence of a secular worldview in the wealthy citystates of Italy. Remember what Secular means?? If you don t look it up!!

7 Knowledge The Renaissance In Italy Milan, Venice, and Florence were particularly prosperous trading centers. Italy's riches prompted France to invade.

8 Knowledge The Renaissance In Italy The writer Machiavelli developed his famous thesis on political power.

9 Knowledge The Renaissance In Italy Spain came to Italy's defense, leading to war and Spanish domination. Italy was a largely urban society.

10 Knowledge The Renaissance In Italy In the towns and cities, there were clear divisions between the classes, ranging from the wealthy and influential patricians to the miserably poor.

11 Knowledge The Renaissance In Italy Some Renaissance artists, including Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, produced masterpieces in all three disciplines.

12 The Renaissance in the North In about 1455 Johann Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany, printed the first complete edition of the Bible using a printing press with movable type.

13 Knowledge The Renaissance in the North While early humanists emphasized solitary learning, fifteenth century humanists stressed intellectualism in the service of the state. Humanism encouraged the use of classical Latin. Francesco Petrarch

14 Knowledge The Renaissance in the North European writers such as Dante and Chaucer wrote in their own vernacular. Humanist schools taught a broad range of liberal studies. Humanities Religious Studies The Arts Social Sciences Philosophy Literature

15 Knowledge The Renaissance in the North Painting, sculpture, and architecture were among the revolutionary achievements of Renaissance art. Musical Instruments

16 Knowledge The Protestant Reformation Christian humanists, such as Erasmus, were critical of Church corruption and said the Church had become involved in politics rather than matters of the spirit.

17 Knowledge The Protestant Reformation The widespread selling of indulgences prompted Martin Luther, a monk and professor, to issue his famous Ninety-Five Theses criticizing Church abuses.

18 Knowledge The Protestant Reformation Luther also rejected some Catholic doctrines.

19 Knowledge The Protestant Reformation The emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was ultimately forced by the Peace of Augsburg to let German states choose between Catholicism and the new Lutheran church.

20 Knowledge Reformation Ideas Spread Division in Protestantism appeared in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli and then John Calvin.

21 Knowledge Reformation Ideas Spread Calvinists belief in predestination spurred missionaries to spread their faith.

22 Knowledge Reformation Ideas Spread In England, the Reformation was based on the political need of Henry VIII to remarry and produce a male heir.

23 Knowledge Reformation Ideas Spread Although Queen Mary later tried to reverse the break with the Catholic Church, by the end of her reign, Protestantism was firmly entrenched.

24 Knowledge Reformation Ideas Spread Anabaptists believed in the complete separation of church and state and were regarded as a danger to society.

25 Knowledge The Scientific Revolution In the mid-1500s, a big shift in scientific thinking caused the Scientific Revolution.

26 Knowledge The Scientific Revolution Before the Renaissance, Europeans thought that Earth was the center of everything in the heavens.

27 Knowledge The Scientific Revolution Scientists used reasoning to propose a logical hypothesis, or possible explanation. This process became known as the scientific method.

28 Knowledge The Scientific Revolution In Italy, Galileo assembled a telescope and observed that the four moons of Jupiter move slowly around that planet.

29 Knowledge The Scientific Revolution English chemist Robert Boyle explained that matter is composed of particles that behave in knowable ways.

30 Knowledge The Scientific Revolution Isaac Newton used mathematics to show that a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun. He called this force gravity.

31 Wisdom Luther's movement sparked a religious revolution. Changes in intellectual thought set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.

32 Wisdom Many German states became key allies for Luther as he broke with the Catholic Church and established a new religion

33 Wisdom Galileo s findings caused an uproar. Other scholars attacked him because his observations contradicted ancient views about the world.

34 Wisdom The Church condemned him because his ideas challenged the Christian teaching.

35 Wisdom A new approach to science had emerged, based upon observation and experimentation.

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