CH 15: Cultural Transformations: Religion & Science, Enlightenment

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1 CH 15: Cultural Transformations: Religion & Science, Enlightenment

2 What was the social, cultural, & political, impact of the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment? The Scientific Revolution was revolutionary because it... Put an end to the idea that the earth was stationary and at the center of the universe, which had been the dominant view of the world in Western Europe. The laws formulated by Isaac Newton showed that the universe was not propelled by angels and spirits but functioned on its own according to timeless principles that could be described mathematically. A corollary of this view was the idea that knowledge of the universe could be obtained through human reason alone, without the aid of ancient authorities or divine revelation. Above all, it was revolutionary because it challenged educated people to question traditional views of the world and humankind s place in it.

3 What was the social, cultural, & political, impact of the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment? The Enlightenment was impactful because it... Applied a new approach to the conduct of human affairs, one that was rooted in human reason, skeptical of authority, & expressed in natural laws. This challenged the aristocratic privileges of European society and the claims to authority of arbitrary governments who relied on the divine right of kings for legitimacy. Challenged the authority of established religion, accusing the Church of fostering superstition, ignorance, and corruption. Also challenged older patterns of thinking through its promotion of the idea of progress. Human society, according to Enlightenment thinkers, was not fixed by tradition or divine command but could be changed, and improved, by human action guided by reason. These ideas ultimately underpinned revolutionary movements in America, France, Haiti, and Latin America.

4 What is the Enlightenment? Words of the world (6 min)

5 An example of a French Salon where debating societies argued the ideas of the Enlightenment. 1 Montesquieu 2- Rousseau 3- Diderot 4-Madame Geoffin 5- Voltaire Did Coffee Fuel the Enlightenment?

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7 What is Philosophe? Public intellectuals who applied reason to the study of many areas of learning, including philosophy, history, science, politics, economics and social issues. Signals a return to Greek Rational Though: Enlightened thinkers who will work to improve mankind's understanding of the world.

8 Wrote Discourse on Method Which was the concept of mind and matter; that reason is the chief source of knowledge. Father of modern philosophy "I think, therefore I am. Because the mind can not be doubted, but the physical world can, the two must be radically different. Rene Descartes

9 Why did the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment occur in Europe rather than in China or the Islamic world? Europe s historical development as a reinvigorated and fragmented civilization arguably gave rise to conditions uniquely favorable to the Scientific Revolution, including a legal system that guaranteed a measure of independence for a variety of institutions and unusually autonomous universities in which scholars could pursue their studies in relative freedom from the dictates of church or state authorities. Western Europe was in a position to draw extensively upon the knowledge of other cultures, especially that of the Islamic world. In the sixteenth through the eighteenth century, Europeans found themselves at the center of a massive new exchange of information as they became aware of lands, peoples, plants, animals, societies, and religions from around the world. This wave of new knowledge, uniquely available to Europeans, clearly shook up older ways of thinking and opened the way to new conceptions of the world. In the Islamic world, science was patronized by a variety of local authorities, but it occurred largely outside the formal system of higher education, where philosophy and natural science were viewed with great suspicion. In China, education focused on preparing for a rigidly defined set of civil service examinations and emphasized the humanistic and moral texts of classical Confucianism. The pursuit of scientific knowledge was relegated to the margins of the Chinese educational system.

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11 VOLTAIRE! François-Marie Arouet Born: 21 Nov 1694 Died: 30 May 1778 Wrote 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books Wrote Treatise on Toleration : Greatest Figure of the Enlightenment I do not agree with what you have to say, but I'll defend to the death your right to say it.

12 Voltaire's toleration was a much needed tonic for a terribly destructive time in Europe. Catholics and Protestants fought wars of religion that rained terror through much of the German states and France.

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14 Deism: the universe was like a clock. Created by the Deity, but left to function. Human beings were left to solve their own problems.

15 Path to the Enlightenment The Enlightenment was an 18 th century philosophical movement built on the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. Philosophers hoped to make a better society by applying the scientific method and reason to social problems. Discussed reason, natural law, hope, and progress.

16 War in the Age of Enlightenment

17 Path to the Enlightenment Enlightenment philosophers thought that society was governed by natural laws just as the Newtonian physical universe was. John Locke: He argued that people are born with a mind that is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, and that knowledge comes to it through the 5 senses. This meant that the right influences could create a new kind of society by creating a new way of understanding.

18 Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind Argued that people formed governments and laws to protect their private property, but the government relationship enslaved them. Rousseau in 1762 wrote The Social Contract" = An entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.

19 How does the Enlightenment compare to the Scientific Revolution?

20 The Enlightenment applied the idea of natural laws to human affairs rather than the physical universe. French Revolution as an example. The Tennis Court Oath (Right) - "Liberty Leading the People" to rise up against Absolute Rulers and Corrupt Government. Creating a new republic (middle image). The death of a king. Louis XIV is killed. (bottom image)

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